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Your assignment must be submitted in Microsoft word or pdf format to the Assignment DropBox on DeakinSync. Scanned documents can not be marked. Essay Example

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Assignment 1

Assignment one consists of five questions with several parts per question. It covers content from topics 1 to 5 inclusive. So you may not be able to answer all the questions just yet. If you don’t know what the question is asking it maybe that we have not yet covered that material.

Important points to remember when completing your assignment:

  • You will be required to conduct some calculations and write short answers.

  • Interpret your answers rather than simply state the number from your calculation.

  • Your assignment MUST be typed.

  • You MUST include ALL formulas used for each question or question part. Providing the formula is an easy way to get a mark!

  • You MUST show all working out.

  • Do not repeat the question on your assignment — just include the question number.

  • Your assignment must be submitted in Microsoft word or pdf format to the Assignment DropBox on DeakinSync. Scanned documents can not be marked.

Question 1

    1. Women between late 20s and early 30s infected with STIs for the first time

    2. Random population sample of women (6,840) from Medicare database aged between 18-23 followed for up to 11 years. 267 of the sample reporting STI for the first time during the study.

    3. The sample is representative of the population because of randomization of the process. However, there was intentional oversampling from rural and remote areas meaning the sample might have many participants from the rural areas and therefore not quite harmonious in representing the population dynamics.

    4. The study is descriptive in the sense that it describes the population proportion that had been diagnosed with STI at least once, most common STI reported and other characteristics of the sample. The study is analytical as it goes ahead to look for associations between the STI and other predictor variables, provides predictive analysis on risk associations and projections of amount of risks.

    Question 2


    Study type

    Measure of association or frequency

    Analytic cross-sectional study

    Determining association between a putative risk factor (poverty) and health outcome (antidepressant use) with a specific period (1995-2010)

    Odds ratio

    Prospective cohort study

    Participants were followed prospectively to see the health outcome among the cohorts

    Risk ratio/relative risk

    Retrospective cohort study

    The study started with the health outcome and followed back to determine exposure to the risk

    Risk ratio/relative risk

    Descriptive cross-sectional study

    The study is looking for incidences at one point in time

    Point incidence

    Longitudinal study

    Same subjects were followed over long period for disease outcome

    Incidence rate

    Prospective cohort study

    Cohorts exposed and unexposed were followed prospectively for heath outcome

    Risk ratio/relative risk

    Descriptive cross-sectional study

    Study was conducted on a group of people at one point in time

    Point incidence

    Case-Control study

    Overweight men and matching controls were recruited and risk exposure was determined retrospectively

    Odds ratio

    Longitudinal study

    Participants were followed up for health outcome

    Cumulative incidence

    Retrospective cohort study

    Risk was determined retrospectively

    Risk ratio

    Question 3

    1. Cumulative incidence = All cases/total sample

    34/2000 = 0.02

    1. Incidence rate = All new cases in 8 years/total time each person was followed

    = 34/ (1982*8) + (8*2)+(10*4)

    Not all women in the study were followed for 8 years, 8 were followed for 2 years and 10 were followed for 4 years.

    1. Incidence rate is more appropriate because it takes account of the time factor which is critical while cumulative incidence does not.

    Question 4

    1. Prevalence = 10/1500

    1. 1490 people

    1. Incidence = new cases/sample

    = 53/1500

    1. Cumulative incidence

    1. i) Odds Ratio

    ii) (65/404)/(56/366)

    iii) The odds of getting brain cancer are 0.05 time higher among those who use mobile phones compared to those who don’t.

    Question 5

    1. i) incidence = 215/5000 =.043

    ii) incidence = 505/15000 =.034

    iii) incidence = 720/20000 = .036

    iv) incidences were higher among the exposed than in the unexposed and among the total employees

    1. relative risk = (215/5000)/(505/15000)

    1. 1.28-1 = 0.28

    There is 28% disease in the exposed workers which could be due to pesticide. The relative risk is higher among the exposed by 0.28 or 28%