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The Name of the School

Table of Contents

3Introduction 1.0

4Statement of definition 2.0

4Recommendation and solution 3.0

7Proposed budget 4.0

7Working scheduling 5.0

8Expected Benefits 6.0

8Risk and Mitigation measures 7.0

8Conclusion 8.0


1.0 Introduction

Normal hybrid vehicle still waste a lot of energy which can be converted to help drive the car through redesigning the engine and the combustion chamber of the C-max hybrid car. This paper discuss a proposal on how to improve the efficiency through modification of the car. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) can be described as one with parallel direct driver train having batteries and motor in the normal conventional internal combustion engine. There are some which are parallel hybrid while others are series hybrids (Salmasi 2007). The main distinction between the two is whether the electric motor can be used in solo or it can be used with the engine. When the two propulsion systems are used, it help in reducing the quantity of fuel consumed hence help to save more energy through reduction of idling and braking losses.

  1. Statement of definition

There are several technologies which can be integrated to hybrid electric vehicle system to help in reducing the demand of energy consumed in the automotive industry helping to downsize the engine. This project aimed at improving efficiency in the C-max hybrid through this modification. The modification is necessary due to the need of improving the efficiency of the car and the fact that we need to conserve our environment. This proposal aimed at providing solution on how to efficiency can be achieved in the c-max hybrid cars, make it less pollutant and much better.

3.0 Recommendation and solution

It is a fact that HEVs performs better than normal or conventional vehicle in terms in fuel consumption and emission of pollutant (Hou et al., 2015). Nevertheless, the performance of HEVs largely depends on the technical design of the vehicle hence it is important to factor in the design process (Lam & Louey 2006).

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The concept used in building the C-MAX hybrid is derived from the petrol engine conventional care where the average efficiency of engine is between 17% to 20% under normal condition of room temperature and pressure (Nemry, Leduc & Muñoz 2009). The energy is mostly being lost as heat in fuel and in engine friction. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the remaining energy is lost during the idling time while around 20-30% of energy is lost when applying brake. Therefore only 12 to 14% percent of energy produced by fuel is actually used in driving the vehicle. This gives high percentage of wastage which C-MAX hybrid has capitalized in to improve the efficiency of the vehicle (Nemry, Leduc & Muñoz 2009). There are several steps in handling this energy to ensure efficiency in the car. They include;

First, the energy lost during the idling time can be reduced substantially through allowing the combustion engine to shut down completely and also to run at a maximum load where battery is recharged during this time. C-MAX hybrid is utilizing this method as designed by Ford Company and help in increasing the car efficiency and fuel consumption.

Secondly, the use of electric drive in C-MAX hybrid allow the vehicle to recuperate some energy losses during braking. The use of electric drive train is used backwards and act as a generator to charge the battery and the conventional brake pads are used during hard braking only which is not much frequent hence help in increasing the car efficiency (Lim et al., 2015). This systems further helps C-MAX hybrid to have longer life brake pads due to this system hence reducing the maintenance and replacement cost.

The third step is making the combustion engine, since the normal combustion engine is designed in a manner such that it can give a maximum output of 60 to 100 kW. Despite this, normal driving time the normal engine drives at 10 to 40 kW resulting to very low efficiency. In designing C-MAX hybrid, it is designed in such a manner when the higher power is required, like when accelerating a hill, an extra power is delivered temporarily by the battery (Lim et al., 2015). Theoretically, it means that engine size is downsized to around 15 to 30 kW which is the average powered required during normal driving. This help in improving efficiency in hybrid designed of the C-MAX hybrid designed by Ford limited hence needs to be produced in case of maximum efficiency is required (Hutchinson, Burgess & Herrmann 2014).

The normal combustion engine be it diesel or petrol usually operates at maximum engine efficiency which is normally close to its maximum power (Thomas 2015). This is due to the fact that the engine is smaller and excessive power which is produced is used for re-charging batteries hence the combustion engine can be able to run at its maximum load most of the time. This is very advantageous and C-MAX hybrid achieves this requirement. Lastly, the possibility of driving without the combustion engine running is very possible and this results to zero emissions and proves advantageous when driving at low speed more so in congested urban areas. The new model of C-Max will try to solve the current limitation of HEVs where the current full HEVs have smaller battery packs with low battery only available for less than a mile at low speed. The new design will come up with a larger battery capacity that will allow for longer battery operations (Thomas 2015). The last step in in the designing the new model is hybridization, plug-ins, rely on increased battery capacity to increase battery only driving range.

4.0 Proposed budget

Combustion engine

$ 2,000.00

Electric connection

$ 5,000.00

Research and development

$ 4,000.00

Prototype model

$ 1,000.00

Testing the actual model

Launching model

$ 1,000.00


$ 3,500.00

$ 17,000.00

This budget gives major parts which will require modification to ensure that the target is achieved.

5.0 Working scheduling

April -May


August- Sept



Design of the model

Engine design

Combination of the parts

Coming up with prototype

Testing the model


6.0 Expected Benefits

This project will improve the efficiency of the car by utilizing the wastage energy in the normal HEV to be used in the driving the car. This will reduce the amount of fuel used in driving the car and to larger extend pollution to environment. I hope our proposal will be accepted.

7.0 Risk and Mitigation measures

The capacity of engine might be more that the expected capacity and this can lead to some inefficiency. To mitigate this risk, the team will developed a prototype which will be tested before it can be launched to the market.

8.0 Conclusion

The target of this new model which is improved c-max hybrid car targeting family individuals who are aiming at improving the efficiency of the car they are using at a minimal cost. The new improved car also target for working class who are trying to leave high class standards but at the same time stay within their means.


Hou, C., Xu, L., Wang, H., Ouyang, M. and Peng, H., 2015. Energy management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with unknown trip length. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 352(2), pp.500-518.

Hutchinson, T., Burgess, S. and Herrmann, G., 2014. Current hybrid-electric powertrain architectures: Applying empirical design data to life cycle assessment and whole-life cost analysis. Applied Energy, 119, pp.314-329.

Lam, L.T. and Louey, R., 2006. Development of ultra-battery for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Journal of power sources, 158(2), pp.1140-1148.

Lim, D.J., Jahromi, S.R., Anderson, T.R. and Tudorie, A.A., 2015. Comparing technological advancement of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) in different market segments. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 97, pp.140-153.

Nemry, F., Leduc, G. and Muñoz, A., 2009. Plug-in Hybrid and Battery-Electric Vehicles: State of the research and development and comparative analysis of energy and cost efficiency (No. JRC54699). Institute for Prospective and Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre.

Salmasi, F.R., 2007. Control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles: Evolution, classification, comparison, and future trends. Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, 56(5), pp.2393-2404.

Thomas, C.S., 2015. Alternative Vehicle and Fuel Options. In Sustainable Transportation Options for the 21st Century and Beyond (pp. 19-24). Springer International Publishing.