Water supply Essay Example

1Running Head: WATER SUPPLY

Water supply

Executive Summary

The report focuses on water storage and filtration systems in households located in the Anh District, in Vietnam. The study revealed that the existing storage system is insufficient, and the area lacks a filtration system. Furthermore, recommendations made include improving the current storage system by increasing its capacity and fixing of a new filtration system. Consequently, this will help reduce pathogens and harmful bacteria and in the process provide clean drinking water.

The Anh District experiences a dry season from December to March. Provision of an adequate storage system will help reduce the water shortages experienced during this period. Design considerations to be taken into account include the frequent flooding and presence of strong winds. The design incorporated involves the use of a single tank for each household in the area. This tank is designed to ensure that water is collected, filtered and stored in one tank. The filtering systems in the tanks are designed to handle impurities that emanate from water from the roof and house gutters. The tanks will be constructed at a lower level than the house to ensure maximum harvesting of water in the tanks. The tank material to be used was selected as plastic as this would be able to withstand higher pressure compared to other materials.

The filtration system design uses a model that has several top sieve layers without the use chemicals to be able to be affordable to the client. The tap is designed to be positioned at a elevated level than the bottom of the tank. In addition, a plug is incorporated in the tank to be used in releasing any particles that settle at the tank bottom. In addition, in the last layer if the filtration sieves, filter cloth will be inserted to capture sediments.

Overview

This report focuses on the design of a water storage unit and a filtration system in the Anh District, in Vietnam. Through the design, we hope to improve the quality of the drinking water by providing a filtration system and increase the storage capacity for each household. Increased water storage capacity will ensure there is sufficient water during the dry season. The design will also be cost sensitive to the people of the Anh district to ensure each household is provided with an adequate storage unit and a filtration system.

To ensure cost effectiveness, the design will implement the use of low cost materials that are readily accessible and environmentally sensitive. Areas to be taken into consideration during the design process include geographical information, infrastructure, weather and environment, demographics and local culture. Vietnam is located near the equator, which justifies the high humidity and temperatures in the area. Consequently, this provides high rainfall amounts in the area. The climatic conditions provide a suitable environment for breeding of pathogens, which contaminate water. In addition, high rainfall amounts increase amount debris in water necessitating the need for a filtration system. The design will ensure there is sufficient storage of water during the dry season, which extends from December to March. Presence of electricity in the area will assist in the design of the filtration device for the storage unit.

Because of the low literacy levels and low income of the people in the Anh District, the design will be cheap and simple. The lifestyle of the local community will be analyzed to ensure a suitable water supply and filtration device is designed to satisfy the wants of the people. In addition, the design will be based on the average water consumption rate of 2 litres per person per day in order to endure adequate design capacity for the storage tank is used. Furthermore, the system will have no chemical processes. The filtration system will be designed in such a way that the locals can employ common knowledge to maintain it. This will be achieved by ensuring that there are no moving parts in the system.

For the piping material, plastic was selected as the most effective as it is easy to maintain, easily accessible, recyclable and is cost effective. To ensure that the system would function properly, the material selected included cement, ceramic and plastic instead of materials such as bamboo as it would not hold much water. Plastic was selected to be used in the final design, as it would minimize incidents of cracking due to high pressure. In addition, construction of either a ceramic tank or a cement one would costly. To ensure that there is no wastage of rainwater, the tanks will be constructed next to each house just below the draining point from the roof of the house.

The final design for the tanks will use a single tank that will have a filtering system incorporated into it. Smaller plastic tanks will be used to ensure the 32,000-litre rupture limit is not exceeded. The installation of a single tank at each household will ensure plumbing and installation of pipes is simple. In addition, this will make it easier for the local people to comprehend how to maintain the system.

The installation of the new system will reduce the need for people travel long distances in search of clean water. In addition, the locals will still use their current method of self-collection of water while still improving the quality of their drinking water. Furthermore, use of plastic will reduce the cost that would be incurred if different materials had been used. Further, since chemicals will not be used, the incidents of environmental pollution will be minimized.

Maintenance of the system

The system should be maintained to ensure that it functions properly. Since the system purpose is to address the needs of the local population, maintenance will ensure that contamination levels of the drinking water are minimized effectively. In addition, the system will be maintained since it still maintains the value of the local people in terms of self-collection of the water. Consequently, lack of maintenance of the system will result in inconveniencing the people in travelling to far locations in search of clean water.

The local people will be advised to ensure they clean the sieves frequently to ensure clogging is avoided. This maintenance will involve removal of large debris caught by the sieves. The filter cloth attached at the end of the tap will be required to be replaced at the end of every season to prevent the emergence of microorganism populations in them.