Water level alarm system using 555 timer

WАTЕR LЕVЕL АLАRM SYSTЕM USING 555 TIMЕR
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Water Level Alarm System Using 555 Timer Report

Abstract

The research will elaborate on the process of a simple working water alarm system by the application of a 555 timer IC; the timer will be quickly set up and for demonstration. The indicated to set up could be deployed in the process of detecting the levels of water overflowing tanks. This could also be applied to reduce the issues of water overflows and wastage (Envato Pty Lt, 2015). In case the end probes touch water, it leads to the closing of the circuit, hence resulting in the passage of the current through it and the buzzer produces an alarm. It is also easy to implement construct and also cost effective.

Introduction

Water is viewed as one of the scarce resources in the entire globe. Many people face clean water insufficiency for their daily activities, and majorly for the purpose of drinking. In some world’s parts, many processes have to be followed so that water is preserved due to its scarcity (Hewes, 2016). In some parts where water is inadequate, Some places water is wasted via water leaks, an opening of tanks with no concern, discharging the water to streets, overflow of water stored in domestic water tanks, etc. this situation necessitated research on how to preserve water. The research led to the invention of a simple system of water alarm usable almost anywhere.

Prevailing matter’s timely response makes the circuit display a simple alarm system of the water level. This report gives detailed information on how this design is set up and its procedure. 555 timers IC is the circuit’s main component. The research began by carrying out this circuit layout’s detailed simulation and finally, they tested its feasibility. Upon design’s successful phase, a simple breadboard harnesses it. A DC supply is used to drive it. Insulated wires are used to make the end probes since they work by touching the level of the water hence indicating an alarm.

Details on its components

1. Resistor

A resistor is a component, electrical in nature, which controls, curbs circuit’s flow of current for the need of the user. They can be arranged either in parallel or series.

2. Capacitor

A capacitor is a component, electrical in nature, which stores, and slowly releases electrical charges to the device’s circuit. Basically, a substance which is dielectric is used between two plates of metal.

3.555 timer IC (NE555)

The 555 time IC can be put in stable, mono-stable or bi-stable modes by varying the way its pins are connected. The uses of the timer are: performing functions of basic timing, creating flash on and off warning lights, producing musical notes which are of different frequencies and controlling servo motor’s control position.

4. Buzzer

A buzzer produces sound when the water’s surface is touched by the end probes. Closure of the circuit makes the current to travel and pass through the water after the end probes touch water surface and to become short circuited (Hewes, 2016). This allows the current to pass through and reach the buzzer making it produce a beep.

5. Battery

A battery acts as the circuit’s source of DC voltage.

6. Breadboard and Wires

The circuit’s electrical components are connected using wires and the breadboard. The circuit, which is an alarm system of water level, is set up with a lot of ease. An alarm rings when the surface of the water is touched by the probes. The act of the probes touching the surface of the water completes the circuit allowing the current to pass through the water making the alarm to ring (Hewes, 2016). The 555 timer IC has an output produced in the form of a square wave. At first, the circuit is in an open state when a connection exists between the terminals. The act of the end probes touching the surface of the water, when the 555 timer IC is at ground state, turns the IC to the stable mode allowing current to pass and travel through the medium of water and a beep by the buzzer is heard.

Calculations of the frequency by which the beeps are produced are as follows,

Frequency (f) = 1.44 / C x (R1 + 2R2) Where,

C is capacitance (Farads)

R1 and R2 are resistances

F is Frequency (kHz)

Changing the circuit’s components might lead to the following conditions:

Increasing C, capacitance, reduces the frequency since cycle time reduces.

IC’s Theoretical output voltage

The waveform is produced in square wave moving from 0 to 3 volts. (Zero-point-labs)

Diagram’s simulation

LTS piece is used to simulate this circuit diagram. Investigation of Output voltage’s graphical representation versus time was done. A square wave was formed consisting of frequency oscillating approximately about 1 KHz (Hewes, 2016).

Problems faced

Solutions

There are difficulties in finding a well outlined problem’s circuit illustration.

The findings were made from the web and ideas were devised among friends.

Being unable to find the correct electrical component which the circuit required.

Finding other components exhibiting distinct electrical properties like voltage and resistance.

Establishing the circuit over the breadboard.

Mostly scholarly journals and online tutorials on construction of circuits on breadboard (Hewes, 2016).

Obtaining the correct output readings of 555 timers IC from the simulation.

Lecture’s guidance, brief discussions and online tutorials

Proper data implementation, and report utilization.

Less ideas from classmates

Malfunctioning of the design

Reconnecting the wires and also redoing for the purpose of overcoming it.

Conclusion

In conclusion, as an evidence of successful simulation, the circuit worked expectedly properly. It was now clear that, simple circuits, such as the one narrated, are usable in industries of large scale for the purpose of avoiding wastage of limited resources like water, etc. even though the design looks very simple, it is appropriate for various issues prevailing in the environment such as shortages of clean water (Hewes, 2016). Large scale firms such as big industries can make use of this simple circuit condense it wastage into a meaningful way. Being Engineering Student, it’s always necessary to come up with such worthy and credible ideas and designs and uplift every world’s human being’s life.

Recommendation

The technique is easy and straightforward to design. It is, therefore, paramount to make some defects and alterations in case the circuit is to be used in large scale industries. Factors such as the design’s efficiency and cost per unit should be considered when introducing it to the large scale industries (Electrical Technology, 2015).Also, Environmental issues rising due to this design have to be studied and considered before the plan is implemented. Other creative sites where this model can be used have to be developed and discussed accordingly. With creativity and time, this design, although simple, could act as a turning point for industrial fields since the device is environmentally friendly.

References

Retrieved from http://computers.tutsplus.com/tutorials/how-to-use-a-breadboard-and-build-a-led- circuit- -mac-54746http://computers.tutsplus.com.Envato Pty Lt. (2015).

Electrical Technology . (2015). Retrieved from www.electricaltechnology.or: http://www.electricaltechnology.org/2014/03/ic-555-timer-calculator-with- formulas.html

Hewes, J. (2016). Retrieved from electronicsclub.inf: http://electronicsclub.info/555timer.htm