Wastewater Infrastructure Essay Example

FRONT PAGE: Water Treatment

Question Answer Assignment

20/30 Standard is the minimum sewage required forsub-surface.

The chemicals used during coagulation are:

-Aluminum chloride

-Ferric chloride

-Liquid Alum

Sodium hydroxide

Sulphuric Acid

Scrubbers are used to reduce the level of dioxins, furans, mercury and acid gases when flue-gas temperature is lowered to 300F.

2.) A) typical pressure in pipeline is 50psi-80psi

b) I) Precoat

ii) Vacuum Filter Operation

c) In the absence of oxygen, the biodegradable material is broken down. Due to the bacterial hydrolysis of the materials, the anaerobic process occurs.

wastewater Infrastructure

wastewater Infrastructure  1

wastewater Infrastructure  2WB= (1000+600)*10

wastewater Infrastructure  3

Advantages of slow sand filters

-Very effective in the removal of viruses, bacteria and heavy materials in the contaminated water.

  • Its reliability is of very high especially if it is operated and maintained well.

  • It is simple, it can operated and maintained by the community and there is no need for pumps.

  • There is high self-help compatibility


-It requires a lot of land.

-There is excessive turbidity-causes filter to clog rapidly

-Loss of productivity during the long filter skimming and ripening periods.

-Needs regular maintenance

Advantages of the Rapid

-Its less sensitive to changes in raw water quality

-Requires less quantity of sand

-Has high volumetric rate than slow sand filter

Disadvantages of Rapid Sand Filter

-Requires greater maintenance rate than slow sand filter

-Skilled supervision is essential

-Cost of maintenance is high

It is required in both slow and rapidsand filter in order to improve their performance by removing dirt and also increase aeration.

The entire depth is not considered. This is due to non-steady state condition as a result of backwashing.

d) Biological process takes place only in the slow sand filters. This is used in removing pathogenic organisms.

a) With slow salt content than sea content

b) The pressure pump

c) To remove molecules, and large particles from drinking water

d) I) Sydney

II) Perth

III) Adelaide

a) The liner system provides checks and balances to ensure environmental protection.

Material used is a geomembrane.

b) Land Fill gas, and it is used for electricity and can be upgraded to pipeline-grade gas.s

c) Waste Hierarchy




Energy recovery


d) Leachate is any liquid which extracts solids from any component as it passes through the matter.

a) When organic constituents and residual disinfectants are needed to be removed from the water supplies. And also when other treatment units needs to be protected.

b) I) Physical activation

II) Chemical activation

c) Yes, because it produces an effluent of higher quality than the normal that is achieved by the secondary treatment processes.

d) Flocculation

a) This is the concentration of suspended solids and activated sludge contained in an aeration basin which occurs during the treatment of waste water.

b) Secondary clarifier is used hold the effluent from the activated sludge process for a period of time to allow the heavier biomass settle to bottom.

  • Population numbers and Distribution

General factors

  • Technology

  • Economics

  • Environmental conditions

  • Regional determinants of water use

  • Municipal and Industrial sectors

I) to remove or reduce any contaminants present in water in order to make it fit use.

ii) To protect the surface-water quality and meet the legal requirements

Taste and odor refers to the chemical senses in water. Taste helps determine the hardness and alkanity in water, while odor helps know if there is smell problems in the drinking water.

7) Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG). Was updated on 2011

True. This is because the germinal wavelengths produced by the UV light renders the microorganisms incapable of infecting and reproducing when they are exposed to it.

Chemical—Volatile—Fixed —sedimental

I) Pre-treatment- This is where there is grit removal. Any impurities that could hamper the subsequent treatment processes.

ii) Primary treatment- The removal of suspended solid waste and reduction of biochemical oxygen demand.

iii) Secondary treatment- Removal of dissolved organic matter that was missed in primary treatment.

iv) Tertiary Treatment- Removal of contaminants or specific pollutants like phosphorous and nitrogen that cause eutrophication

I) Aerobic bacteria-They grow and survive only in the presence of oxygen.

II) Anaerobic bacteria- It’s the bacteria that do not grow or live when oxygen is present. They are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract.

III) Facultative bacteria- This is the bacteria that live under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

Mixed liquor suspended solids is the concentration of suspended matter in the activated sludge system. It is usually determined by suspended solids analysis of the suspension in the aeration tank and it is supplied with oxygen and kept mixed by bubbling air through it. In an activated sludge process used in calculation when all solids are considered.

Recirculation increases the contact time of the microorganism with the wastewater. This increases and optimizes the efficiency of treatment. Additionally, it increases hydraulic detention time and maintain distributor arm rotation during the periods of low flow.

Moreover, recycling reduces the strength of the wastewater being applied and provides uniform flow distribution.

Secondary clarifier is a circular basin in which effluent from the activated sludge is held for a period of time during which the heavier biomass settle to the activated sludge. This sludge works in such a way that teams the microorganisms which are then returned to the first aeration basin in order to begin the activated sludge treatment process again.

Solid and Hazardous Waste

It is flammable

It is corrosive

It’s toxic

19) This is any liquid that extracts soluble or suspended solids of the matter through which it has passed. It is used to extract dissolved and suspended materials in the sludge to ensure there is purity.

Yes, it’s true. It’s needed when the sludge needs to be used as a fertilizer.