In construction works, columns are always used to support floors. Usually, these columns could be a one-way spanning system or a two-way ribbed system each of which is called a ribbed slab or a waffle slab respectively. Waffle slabs may, therefore, be defined as a type of reinforced concrete column and slab system usually erected under the subsequent floors. Important to note also is that this type of slab is constructed above the ground surface.

The use of waffle slabs is beneficial in long spans, enhancing easy vertical penetration between ribs, reducing the overall weight and the economy of construction materials. This project investigates the use and importance of waffle slabs in Melbourne.


  • This project is scientifically worth implementing because of the obvious need for a reduction in the overall weight and economy of construction materials in construction

  • My skills and knowledge base match with this project in the sense that I am studying structural engineering and plan to practice as a qualified professional in this field by implementing such techniques as the use of waffle slabs

  • I am motivated by the idea especially due to the ability of the waffle slabs to enhance economy of construction materials.

  • In future, researchers could focus on studying on how to improve the existing waffle slab systems for even better functionality.


Tesoro, F. R. (2003). Estimation of deflections in waffle slabs. Los forjados reticulares: diseno, analisis, construction y patologia, 402-409.

This article looks into how deflections in the waffle slabs could be determined and calculated depending on the building. This information will be useful in adding to the discussion on the strength and stability of waffle slabs in Melbourne.

Galeb, A. C. & Ibrahim, T. E. (2014). Optimum Dimension of Post-tension Concrete Waffle Slabs. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 3(7), 14755-14767.

Galeb & Ibrahim (2014) present a concise literature on how to establish the recommended dimensions of post-tension concrete waffle slabs. Such a study will be fundamental in contributing to the project knowledge on waffle slabs.

Prasad, J., Chander, S. & Ahuja, A. K. (2005). Optimum Dimensions of Waffle Slab for Medium Size Floors. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building And Housing) 6(3), 183-197.

Through this article, the three authors expound on the findings obtained from an analytical study performed on waffle slab medium size floor system. The study assumes a monolithically connected waffle slab to band beams. The analysis of these findings will be important in establishing the properties of waffle slabs in this project.

Maksoud, A. A. R. (2000). Analysis of Waffle Slabs with Openings. Zigazig University, Faculty of Engineering.

The aim of this study is to find out the structural characteristics of waffle slabs that are ribbed and flat both with openings as well as without openings. The study also finds out the design coefficients for these waffle slabs. This article, therefore, will help understand the behaviour of waffle slabs in the case of large openings.

Cement and Concrete Association of Australia (2003). Guide to Long-Span Concrete Floors.

This is a guide that emphasizes on the structural design of the flooring of a structural building as specified by the Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. The guide will be helpful when understanding the waffle slabs on long span concrete floors.

Cement and Concrete Association of Australia (2003). Guide to Residential Floors.

This guide focuses on explaining the different kinds of concrete slab systems with the slab on the ground as well as suspended floors particularly best suited for residential buildings as specified by the Cement and Concrete Association of Australia. It will be significant in providing information on the most suitable waffle slabs for residential buildings.

Cement and Concrete Association of Australia (2000). The housing concrete handbook.

As the title suggests, this guide by the Cement and Concrete Association of Australia provides insight into how house builders can better understand, order, and deal with concrete and other materials made out of cement. Such information will be helpful in providing details on how to even better handle waffle slabs which are also cement-based materials.

Galeb, A. C. & Atiyah, H. F. (2011). Optimum design of reinforced concrete waffle slabs. International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering 1(4), 862-880.

This document investigates the use of genetic algorithms in solving the challenge of the recommended design of waffle slabs made out of reinforced concrete based on two case studies. The paper will introduce the use of the direct design technique in the structural analysis and design of waffle slabs.

Arellano-Méndez, E. & González-Cuevas, O. M. (n.d.). Punching Shear in Waffle Slab, Seismic Design.

This paper illustrates how waffle slabs can be designed using two systems i.e. a system of columns and a reinforced concrete structure that can resist without dependence. The information presented will contribute to the discussion on reinforced concrete waffle slabs in structural designs.

Clarke, D. (2013). Concrete slab floors. Materials, 254-260.

An indepth discussion on the various types of concrete slabs used in structural works is presented in this article. According to Clarke (2013), there are various forms of concrete slabs e.g. suspended, on-ground, and dual concrete slabs. For the present project, this information will be necessary in selecting the best form of waffle slabs to implement in a given structural project.