URBANISATION Essay Example

1 URBANISATION

According to IRIN (2007) urbanization is a process through which the population grows rapidly due to the natural increase in the population and their movement from the rural areas to the urban areas due to accessibility of vital services in the urban areas. According to IRIN (2007:1) over 50 % of the total world population was already living in the cities by the year 2007. Other researches that have been conducted recently indicate that the number of people living in the cities is expected to rise to at least five billion people come 2030. Past researches have shown the negative impact that urbanization has had on the economic and health sectors. This essay will specifically focus on the three main negative impacts of urbanization. These problems are: infrastructure, health and pollution. It will also give suggestions on the possible solutions to these problems.

Urban dwellers are already facing dangerous infrastructure problems. Infrastructure problems relate to shortage or lack of water and transport as well as the education facilities. Some of the very basic needs of the city dwellers in include: health, food, water and education. These needs however are not readily available to over 600 million people who live in the urban areas (Hinrichsen et al, 2001). Urbanization has also been associated with problems relating to water shortages and water pollution. This in turn leads to so many people dying every year as a result of drinking polluted water as well as lack of clean water sources. So many poor urban dwellers have also been suffering from lack of sanitation and poor sanitation facilities and transportation problems (Hinrichsen et al, 2001). According to Mukherji (n.d), the unemployment rate has been rising as a result of urbanization. There are some things that can be done to solve this problem which will ultimately reduce the negative impacts of urbanization. To start with, government should learn from the experience of other industrialized countries on the impact of urbanization. China is one good example that has learnt from the experience of other countries (Li, 2005). Moreover, many changes are significant to better services pertaining to supply of water, farming, public transportation, energy conservation and sanitation (Hinrichesn et al, 2001).

There has been an increase in the rate of infection as a result of the increasing number of crowded slums which lack fundamental services as well as the large number of rubbish heaps surrounding the urban areas (Linden, 1996). Moreover, urbanization has lead to growth in the urban areas that has lead people to live in slums or informal sectors. According to IRIN (2007) people living in the slums are more likely to die at an early age since they are more exposed to infectious diseases. It is also expected that over two billion people will be living in the slums by the year 2030 (IRIN 2007). However, several solutions can be used to solve this problem. For example, with good governing systems and regulations, the negative impacts of urbanization can be solved. The governments should consider helping the squatters to settle down so as to improve their living standards. This can be done through several means such as city zoning or diving, land reign and other regulations (IRIN 2007). Family planning programs can also be introduced to help cope with the problem of population growth and hence health problems. Urban farming is also considered to be an appropriate solution to this problem since it will help increase the food supply and hence reduce the problem of malnutrition (Hinrichesn et al, 2001).

It is clear that pollution is one of the major problems that people living in urban areas have experienced over several years. There are many kinds of pollution such as: air pollution which causes 3 million die every year and more than 1.1 billion people are distressed (Hinrichesn et al, 2001). For instance, India closed 90,000 small factories for polluting the areas. Also, 29 % of Mexican people and 90% of African people have been affected by lead poison (Annez, 1998). There are some solutions to solve these problems. First, people can use unleaded fuel instead of using leaded fuel can an effective way to reduce air pollution (Annez, 1998). Zoning areas is another effective way in managing the problem of urbanization and to keep pollution factories far from cities as well as managing public transportation which will solve the problem of cars congestion which increase air pollution (Hinrichsen 2001).

In conclusion, the essay has discussed that urbanization could create many negative impact and problems such as infrastructure, health and pollution problems. In order to solve these problems, developed countries can play an important role to reduce these serious negative consequences of urbanization in developing counties by sharing their technologies focusing on the main causes and how to overcome the problem effectively.