Urban and regional planning –development control Essay Example
The knowledge of urban planning is essential in identifying the points where one has to set up a given development project. When, one requires to set up a project such as; a supermarket, mini- mall or be it any firm, the choice of land and location becomes a vital aspect for proper development. This applies to urban planners who may give advice to potential investors who want to invest in a given project using the available land. Essentially, the concept of urban and regional planning refers to a shift from mere growth that is maintained in a society to the capacity whereby, it does not endanger the basic requirements of the generations to come. This is envisaged in the manner in which urban and regional planning would be handled. Sustainable growth and development is the expectation and focus of the articulation as well as, the inclusion of human and environmental requirements in the process of pursuing objective growth and development in economics. There is also, notably, socio-economic, physical as well as human dimensions of growth and development. The concern however, is basically physical and environmental dimensions of the sustainable growth concept. Early research on growth shows that, sustainability has not been able to emphasize much concerning the concept of physical dimension. This paper unravels the strategies which could be used in selecting the most appropriate opportunities that could be performed on a given site and the challenges that may arise with regards to the development of that particular piece of land.
Firstly, just as it was many years back, the planning for the new building requires creativity as a source of planning. Man has been using this method to come up with plans for cities where people could just sit and focus on the future. As this is done, there is need to ensure that the new plan will be sustainable and aims at improving the lifestyles of individuals.
Appraising of techniques used in planning enables the planners to come up with to understand the prevailing matters as required by the human needs. This call for planning that would ensure that human live well and enjoy the available facilities. The aspect of urban planning aims at improving the conditions that man lives. This endeavours the idea of social idealism that gives the attribute on how a particular condition should be.
This is performed by the integration of the human consciousness with the environment and coming up with solutions as to what should be done purposely to achieve the plan.
igure 1Human interaction modelF
uman Environment. Consciousness H
what, reasons, facts.
The aspect of social idealism in planning process has manifested itself even during the ancient times in Australia. This was common after the Second World War where, the urban planners focused employed the practical idealism that would enhance the construction of better habitable places where human could settle. Regional and urban planning assumes a very vital part in shaping a capital city. With no prior or relevant planning, a city will tend to develop in a manner that is difficult to control. This is because of the changes involving the environment and economy as well as social and population changes (Glasson and Tim, 2007). This starts from the time its formulation took place. A given town that has a town planner can form the city based on the principle of water and land, which is currently, a fundamental concept of growth and development. This happens regardless of whether the history of urban planning of a city contributes negatively or positively to its development (Markusen, 2010). This requires the consideration of essential factors in so as to come up with a concrete plan.
Essentially, it is vital to make a brief tracing of the history of a given Capital. This could be followed by introducing the concepts of planning that are of the best possible design to be selected. Secondly, planning, growth and development of a given capital city with regard to a number of given issues which include; the use of land and planning and the consolidation of urban have all so far been able to bring about both positive and negative results as noted by Low and Brendan (2001, pp.784-788). The last stage is drawn in which the implementation of the plan is clearly stated. Moreover, in Chicago there was provision of loans to the individuals by banks so as they could facilitate the mortgages. This stipulated the idea of activism that would enhance proper planning amongst the communities. This was also articulated in nations such as Bangladesh by provision of loans to the citizens to enhance better provision of services.
Therefore, sustainable growth and development has become controversial. There were early controversies and debates concerning the need and urgency of creating ‘green cities’. Whereas some explanations that are associated with economic and social development to the development of the environment, the WHO is of the view that sustainable growth and development of any given capital city should focus and put a lot of attention in achieving an economy that is innovative, productive and stable at an optimum use of resources.
Client to engage in Consultation
Planning it technical field and it addresses the views of everyone. Planning is at the forefront in fight for optimum utilisation of resources, since the client wants to take over the new house, he is supposed to carry out a thorough consultation with the neighbours, the members of the clergy and also the families. This will ensure that there is a sufficient bond with the local authorities, the family and other stakeholders like environmentalists hence, the house once bought by the client will not be a centre of discussions. The consultations have proved to be of great impact since they not only enhance the output but also ensure that the project taken is successful, consultation has played major roles in the past like in the master plan of Delhi, the north South Wales in Australia among others. This consultation will involve the steering committee, the public meetings and another by the stakeholders.
Requirements for urban planning
There has been a lot of emphasis meeting from world organizations in meeting the requirements of the current generation while it also does not compromise with the future generation’s ability to satisfy or deliver their own requirements as noted by George (2002). The feature of environmental and physical problems in a capital are analyzed and laws as well as policies in place which influence physical development in that particular capital are evaluated in order to determine their mistakes.
At the international level, management and development of city strategies are critically looked at with examples from the United Nations habitat achievements. This paper also gives the provision of policies given the state with inclusion of incorporation of socio-economic, physical planning and administration of municipal activities, as well as capacity building. Other recommendations included are the essence for approaches that are innovative and that are geared towards the management of the environment and exhibition of some of the best activities from the control of the development to the management of the development.
The growth and development of capital around Europe has over the years been directed and also led by the populations in the urban that is ever on the rise. However, in spite of limited threats that used to result from the increase in population that occurred uncontrollably over a decade ago, there are various factors that are still responsible for the urban sprawl.
Primarily, the idea of rural urban development and attempts to organize and include human as well as, environmental requirements in order to attain growth and development of the economy as noted by Markusen (2010, p. 380). It is a sequence of change which involves making use of investments, resources; applying technology and changes in the institution which are related to one another and making improvements in current and, in future potential to be able to satisfy the human aspirations and needs.
Physical planning just like the other parts of man endeavour contains a major role to deliver if physical development that is sustainable is to be realized in any country. The planning in urban centres plays a key role in obtaining sustainability. Planning which involves the urban centres does not always change directly into goods. It is seen through what it produces that is the result obtained from carrying out of the provisions in planning as well as the programmes. It avails a blue print structure to be put into use for the development of the human physical habitat as noted by Rodiek (2002, p.2). Through a way indication planning in urban centres presents the lead structure used in construction of the environment that is when it comes to attaining sustainable development and control of the environment. The documents of physical planning could be perceived as those responsible for carrying and transporting the term that is immediate term as well as, setting the way for future growth. This may be achieved by
a diagram that is planned and backed up with a number of legislative policies as well as, reports of administration. For instance, for a given city the legislative policies have to be adhered followed by the reports from the administration.
Figure 1 Planning concept
Reports of administration
Thus, reliable physical growth and development as well as, the human settlement management depend a lot on the functionality of the development of physical plans. This encompass the harmonization of the use of land, control of growth and development, making facilities available, public goods and services, proper use of resources, heritage preservation and many others.
The process of implementing the management of development strategies which in usually proposed though guidelines and policies of national planning is a repeated idea in a lot of localities that experience a faster rate of urbanization. Throughout the last two decades, questions about unrestricted regional urban development incorporated countrywide as well as, the government authorities in most nations around the world.
A variety of the leaders in this kind of management of smart development approach are turning out to give priorities to the policies and guidelines that come up. These includes; reduction of air and water pollution, proper use of land, minimization of distances travelled by computers, formation of important mass for the regions in the city and also preserving the natural land (Hall and Mark, 2010). The positive or negative outcome of the guidelines used in the prevention of growth and development that is left without proper management has gone ahead with being the subject of a wide range of opinions that are diverse and which questions the workability of growth and development management. Particularly, a lot of focus is often given to the duty of the owners of lands in the transformation that is affected as a result of expansion of the metropolitan and also development patterns.
Process of putting up a regional centre
The process of putting into use the urban and regional growth and development of boundaries in the confines of physical planning in capitals which are considerably large is faced with lack of proper studies to be able to give evidence regarding the workability of policy and guidelines measures. Being able to recognize how important the key cities are and the role played by them in the global economies has a significant development following the higher rate of reconstruction of various economies. In connection with this kind of recognition, the manners in which issues are related and governed come up in many metropolitan regions that are larger in size (Glasson and Tim, 2007). A collaboration of authorities that are either statutory or voluntary has been able to change in a manner so as to encounter planning issues that are regional.
Figure 2 Model of implementing a given planning action
This model gives the sense of involvement in relation to the decision made and the environment. This gives the synthesis of the observations that are made and put into practice the theories that would have been elucidated.
So as to come up with a comprehensive, plan, the impacts on given plans should be quantified so as to select the most appropriate option. This system of ranking may be developed by technical experts of surveyors. This may be related in terms of cost, environment, and acceptability to the society. This is as shown in the table below.
Table1. Indicates the ranking systems (Hall and Mark, 2010)
|Effectiveness of the cost||Equity||Environment||Acceptability of public|
The incomplete process of making the decision on the international scene has been able to bring about difficulties that are particular when it comes to handling important infrastructure. Since infrastructure is a vital component to the economy and the development of urban centres, reform pressures that are geared in the direction of effective and efficient management capabilities at the levels of regions have a high probability of going on. It is vital for the required systems to be adopted at a regional level that is appropriate in order to see to it that there is the existence of an organizing ability at this level t an appropriate regional level to make planning and implementation of growth and development policy. The perceived reduction in the manner of involvement that is direct in comparison in the projects of economic and social development is apparent globally.
This is evidently seen in those countries that were in the past looked at as those with spatial guidelines that are strong and which are focused at planned and compacted form of urban. Public support for management of growth and development has been evident in the process of approving a lot of measures that are being embraced across the globe so as to ensure protection of the open space that is in existence (Hall and Mark, 2010). Just as northern region of the US is affected as a result of the sprawl; controversies concerning its results have continued to be given publicity for the past three decades.
Views of Knowledge in planning
The client of the new house needs to adequately have knowledge about the planning action. We have several sources of knowledge which helps different clients of real estates in planning for their actions. These views are mainly
Rationalism: it offers a first run to the reasoning of human beings and calls for the substantiation of human senses as well as thoroughly testing their ideas. It was developed during the early (462-401 BC).still other views of knowledge which should be utilised involve:
- Activism and pragmatism.
- Empirism among others.
Why planning is important to clients
Planning has got a major catalytic part to achieve in the process of realizing development that is sustainable. Such plans make provision of reliable and are the best locations for a variety of human activities. Moreover, the forecast of physical planning and activities related to the projects by means of the process of planning which includes critical analysis as well as, the evaluation. Therefore, such kind of planning is better placed when it comes to realization as well as promotion of regional and urban growth that is sustainable.
The stability of the society and environmental quality that is made on the basis of equity, and their essence of physical planning can be presented as follows; during the occurrence of physical development there are usually impacts that are very intense and which affect the land and water resources as well as, the atmosphere. The essence of taking preventive action early to protect against damages that are potential. There is also the population growth pressure and urbanization which a lot of the times possess serious challenges to the provision of appropriate shelter, services as well as, the infrastructure. This makes it necessary to make planning for them. The other one is that, those that are poor a lot of times lack access to shelter that is appropriate and suitable and usually have no access to proper security services as well as land tenure, they are also not in a position to ensure guaranteed protection of their interests. The appropriate way of overcoming such problems is to incorporate the physical planning so as to make provision of an environment that is appealing to the eyes and also functional and hence provision of services that are satisfactory and also sustainable.
Challenges range from physical to environmental challenges in any selected capital or state. Others could include conflicts experienced in the use of the land like the process of infiltration done to the land that is commercially used as noted by Rodiek (2002, p.2). Congestion as well as damage that are environmentally caused resulting to the reduction in the togetherness experienced in a given community while other results that is negative and which are not even when it comes to the consideration of spatial economy and also social results and developments. There have been further allegations holding the view that sprawl can be very easily avoided as a market force function. However there have been public supports of policies that favour new green fields that are being built as well as roads that are based on growth and development. The process of decentralizing employment which has been ongoing as well as, the urbanization along the path of infrastructure of transport and the emerging results that are affecting the structure of the urban spatial has had a continual transformation tom become a key characteristic in the examination of critical metropolitan areas and their related growth and development.
System planning and analysis
The client acquiring the new house should first understand that this is a system. The system is a combination of what is outside the house, that is the environment, and all what affects the operations of the house.
A system in broader sense can be said to be a combination of inputs, process and output. The input here is the incoming element while the process can de termed as the actions taking place in the transformation while the output is the end effect or what is achieved.
The input affects what is to be produced hence the quality and nature of inputs in this context affect the result.
igure 3 planning processF
Input process output.
For the sake of the house to be acquired, we can synthesise this into:
Inputs: this can be the methods of purchase of the house, the method of occupancy, schools nearby and the composition.
Process: these are the investments made by the buyer, the response to the society, community, and later the actions.
The output: this is nothing but the social interaction with the neighbour, the role of the metropolitan, and the future role of the society.
In conclusion, setting up a planning action for a given land would require prioritising the primary and the secondary values. Some secondary values such as glamour, diversity and choice have to be foregone so as to achieve the maximum utilization of the given land. This would be handy where the primary values benefits exceed the secondary values. The allocation of the available resources would also have an impact in the manner in which land is allotted. This would depend on human, capital and financial resources.
George, K., 2002. Basic principles and methods of urban and regional planning. Lagos, Nigeria: Libro-Gem.
Glasson, J. and Tim, M., 2007. Regional planning. Milton Park, Abindgon, Oxon. Routledge.
Hall, G and Mark, T., 2010. Urban and regional planning. Abingdon, Oxon, England: Routledge.
Low, N. and Brendan, G., 2001. «Ecosocialization or countermodernization? Reviewing the shifting ‘storylines’ of transport planning.» International journal of urban and regional Research, 25(4), pp.784-803.
Markusen, A., 2010. «Arts and culture in urban or regional planning: A review and research agenda.» Journal of planning education and research 29(3), pp. 379-391.
Rodiek, J., 2002. «Landscape and urban planning cover for 2003.» Landscape and urban planning 62(1), pp. 1-2.
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