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  • Unit Name: Methods of Researching Annotated Bibliography (1,500 words) Topic: Developing Ideas

Unit Name: Methods of Researching Annotated Bibliography (1,500 words) Topic: Developing Ideas Essay Example

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    Other
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  • Level:
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Methods of Researching Annotated Bibliography

Methods of Researching Annotated Bibliography

The Template
Research Question:

Do the probable forms of micro energy and micro-renewable technology capital costs impact on domestic users’ acceptability and role in preventing climate change?Hypothesis – if appropriate:


The high capital costs of micro energy and micro-renewable technology is the main barrier to micro energy generation up take and reduction in climate change by domestic users.Rationale:
It is now widely known that climate change is the single most important long-term threat facing the earth. It is as a result that governments such as that of the UK have set targets to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is the main pollutant responsible for climate change by over 20% (Wood & Newborough, 2003).

In seeking ways through which effective and sustainable prevention of climate change will be ensured, the need for ensuring that the active participation of every individual has been identified. The use of micro generation is one intervention to climate change that has been identified as being applicable not just at the industrial level but also at the individual level (Sauter & Watson, 2007).

Micro generation refers to a mix of technologies involved with the technologies used in generation of both heat and power which have a thermal output rating which is below 45kWt or an electrical output of 50kWt. It includes the generation of heat and power from wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and hydro sources. It also includes heat generation from biomass, solar thermal and heat pumps as well as micro CHP which produces heat and power from renewable or fossil fuels (Clinch, et al., 2001). Increased use of renewable energy, including micro-renewables, can make an important contribution in the efforts to reduce carbon emissions in support of climate change and renewable energy objectives (Wolven, 2001).

Through the use of micro generation, governments are strongly taking the role of ensuring that they environmental safety and sustainability through the reduction of climate change (Caird& Roy, 2010). The Scottish Government has for example set a target to generate 50 per cent of Scotland’s electricity from renewables by the year 2020, with an interim target of 31 per cent by the year 2011. Micro-renewables are expected to play an important role in meeting (or exceeding) these targets and the historic environment which will be a significant contributor. It is evident from various studies that reliance on most renewable energy like solar energy contributes greatly in reducing climate change (Watson, 2004). Hence since most micro energy production technologies revolve in renewable energy, micro-renewable energy sources are likely to take a vital role in realizing governments’ objectives, and this is of course done without forgetting environmental contribution and its major roles (Keirstead, 2006).

Many researches relating to micro generation among domestic users and industries and its role in reducing climate change have been conducted .Such researches have identified its implementation as an expensive undertaking and that therefore requires high capital costs (Baker and Rylat, 2008; Keirstead, 2006; Watson, 2004; Wolven, 2001; Wood & Newborough, 2003; Warren, P. 2010). Very few studies have however been done to assess what impact the high capital costs of this implementation would have on domestic users’ uptake and their expected role in reducing climate change (Bahaj, 2010; Caird& Roy, 2010; Cogoy, 2005 ). It is for this reason that this study will be conducted. The focus for this study will be on domestic users and not industries. By implementing the use of micro generation, communities and individual consumers are likely to contribute to the European Union renewables targets as well as reduce carbon emissions.

Aims and Objectives:

The specific objectives to determine the impact ofmicro energy and micro-renewable technology capital costs on domestic users’ acceptability and role in preventing climate change are:

1. To determine the capital costs of micro generation for a domestic user

2. To assess the existing relationship between the cost of micro generation and domestic users’ uptake and climate change.

3. To identify the impacts of high micro generation costs on the domestic user and on climate change

References:

Bahaj, B. (2010).Micro generation: Opportunities and Barriers. Sustainable Energy Research, 4(2): 36-45.

Caird, S. and Roy, R. (2010). Adoption and use of household microgeneration heat technologies. Low Carbon Economy, 1(2): 61-70.

Clinch, J. P., Healy, J. D., & King, C., (2001).Modelling improvements in Domestic energy efficiency. Environmental Modelling & Software, 16 (1):87-106.

Cogoy, M. (2005).Market and non-market determinants of private Consumption and their impacts on the environment. Ecological Economics, 13 (3):169-180.

Keirstead, J. (2006). Evaluating the applicability of integrated domestic energy consumption frameworks in the UK. Energy Policy, 34 (17): 3065-3077.

Sauter, R., & Watson, J., (2007). Strategies for the deployment of microgeneration: implications for social acceptance. Energy Policy, 35 (5), 2770–2779.

Warren, P. (2010). Uptake of Microgeneration among Small Organizations in the Camden Climate Change Alliance. Retrieved 30 August, 2011. < http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/764/>

Watson, J., (2004). Co-provision in sustainable energy systems: the case of microgeneration.
Energy Policy, 32, 1981–1990.

Wolven,L.E., (2001).Life-styles and energy consumption.Energy,16(6):959-963.

Wood, G., & Newborough, M., (2003).Dynamic energy-consumption Indicators For domestic appliances: environment, behaviour and design. Energy and Buildings, 35:821-841.

Annotated Resource #1
Full Harvard Reference:
Caird, S. and Roy, R. (2010). Adoption and use of household microgeneration heat technologies.
Low Carbon Economy
, 1(2): 61-70.Brief comment on Author’s background/ bias/ credibility
Both the authors are in Open University, Milton Keyes In the UK with Sally Caird in the design innovation Group and Roy in the department of design
:Brief comment on the nature of the intended audience:


This is a scientific journal published in the Low Carbon Economy Journal published for researchers to equip then with more information in their researches. Brief summary:
the paper focuses on the issues that come up as a result of adoption by stakeholders in the UK and the EU to the use of micro generation heats in homes.
Critical evaluation:
the paper is precise in its organization and address of the required idea in trying to explain how consumers perceive low carbon emission in their households through proper experimentation analysis.
Notes on relevance to your study:

The paper holds in that the adoption of the discussed small scale technologies is amongst the key elements in the UK to counter the climate change challenge.

Annotated Resource #2
Full Harvard Reference:
Clinch, J. P., Healy, J. D., & King, C., (2001).Modelling improvements in Domestic energy efficiency.
Environmental Modelling & Software, 16 (1):87-106

Brief comment on Author’s background/ bias/ credibility Healy and Clinch are both in the department of Environmental Studies at the University of Dublin. King is also at the same university though in the Energy research group at the school of architecture.
:

Brief comment on the nature of the intended audience:

This is an academic article in an academic journal probably intended for review by peers in the academics community.

Brief summary: the paper is a description of using a computer model to assess the potential of saving domestic energy based on a case study.

Critical evaluation: the paper discusses the model. Its inputs and outputs, assesses the individual dwellings, measures that are taken for energy efficiency and gives results. This enables a first hand account of the situation to the reader.

Notes on relevance to your study:

The paper equips the user with information on the saving potential in homesteads based on a realistic model that uses a real case.

Annotated Resource #3
Full Harvard Reference:

Cogoy, M. (2005).Market and non-market determinants of private Consumption and their impacts on the environment. Ecological Economics, 13 (3):169-180.

Brief comment on Author’s background/ bias/ credibility the author is a lecturer at the university of Trieste in the department of economics.
:

Brief comment on the nature of the intended audience:

The paper is academic published in the journal of ecological economics and intended for an academic community for peer review.

Brief summary the paper discusses the impact of human activities in their social lives to the degradation of the environment.

Critical evaluation: The paper has been presented in an analytical manner. The paper has looked into effects of consumption and incorporated various theories to support its arguments.

Notes on relevance to your study:

The paper holds in this study as it enlightens on the impact that is brought about by day to day activities on the environment and the influence on climatic patterns.

Annotated Resource #4
Full Harvard Reference:

Keirstead, J. (2006). Evaluating the applicability of integrated domestic energy consumption frameworks in the UK. Energy Policy, 34 (17): 3065-3077

Brief comment on Author’s background/ bias/ credibility The author is at the environmental change institute at the University of Oxford.
:

Brief comment on the nature of the intended audience:

The paper is academic and published in the journal of energy policy. It is therefore destined for peer review by the academic world.

Brief summary: the paper examines integration of frameworks available in literature in the energy policy of the UK. It analyses the impact of this integration. It proposes an integrated approach to the domestic policy.

Critical evaluation: The paper examines the various frameworks applicable in the domestic energy policy. Examines evidence in the framework and uses them to build an integrate approach of which it proposes.

Notes on relevance to your study:

This paper is relevant in that it checks into the energy policy of the country and comes up with a framework that proposes best practice for energy policy that will add up to reducing environmental degradation.

Annotated Resource #5
Full Harvard Reference:

Sauter, R., & Watson, J., (2007). Strategies for the deployment of microgeneration: implications for social acceptance. Energy Policy, 35 (5), 2770–2779.

Brief comment on Author’s background/ bias/ credibility Both the authors are in the science and technology policy research department at the freeman centre in the university of Sussex in the UK.
:

Brief comment on the nature of the intended audience:

The intended audience is for academic peer review considering that it is an academic paper that has been published in the journal of energy policy.

Brief summary: the paper looks into various models of energy deployment to corporate and consumers and thus acceptance of micro generation in the market and the consequential uptake of the technologies.

Critical evaluation: the paper starts with looking at the provision and the acceptance of the infrastructural technologies. It then looks at acceptance from a consumer perspective and then looks into the deployment models.

Notes on relevance to your study:

The paper is relevant in that it checks into the uptake of these technological aspects into the market which is a determinant factor in usage of this technology which has a direct impact on climate change.