Understanding Travel and Tourism Essay Example

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Understanding Travel and Tourism

Understanding Travel and Tourism

Understanding Travel and Tourism

Map of Brazil

Understanding Travel and Tourism

(Petrasplace 2016)

How and why Brazil became an important destination for travelers and tourists

The attempts for Brazil to become a travelers and tourist destination started with human movement (Boniface & Cooper 2001, p.331). When nomads, traders, pilgrimage and explorers migrated to Brazil they influenced the culture of the locals. This is how it happened to make Brazil a significant destination for tourist. The first human movement that turned the country into popular destination took place in the 16th century. Discovery Channel (2004, p. 67) claimed that when Pedro Cabral, a Portuguese explorer came first came to Brzail in the early 16th century he found the Amerindians who had already settled. According to Discovery Channel (2004, p. 67) also asserted that some researchers found out that Amerindians also migrated to Brazil from Central Asia while other argued that they came across the Pacific into the country. Studies Bandyopadhyay and Nascimento (2010, p.934) pointed out that these Portuguese migrated to Brazil to search for wealth and to change the locals to Christianity. As a result, the image of Brazil was formed which is still applied by the tourism sector. The Portuguese also brought in the African slaves to provide labour. Such movement created a multicultural community. Today the Brazilian tourism sector applies multiculturalism as a factor in marketing the country to tourists.
Brazil also became tourist destination because of the cultural events which attracts people across different continents. Selka (2013, p. 410-412) contended that Candomble festival which takes place in Bahia attracts people because it showcase the impact of Africa culture on the Brazilian people. Insight Guides (2000, p. 248-249) claimed Portuguese culture is also showcased at Olinda and attracts several tourists a year. A study conducted by Boniface and Cooper (2001, p. 335) claimed that Brazil started forming as tourist destination when Portuguese royal family migrated to in Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century. Taylor (1982, p. 302) opined that due to profile of these visitors, the authorities recognized the significance of Rio Carnival and began to promote Rio as tourist destination.

Why the Iguacu (Iguazu) falls is important for tourist attraction and kinds of activities are available for the visitors

Iguacu (Iguazu) falls is an important tourist attraction in Brazil because its story of formation enables the tourists to understand the culture of Brazil. The fall is also important because it has led to development in terms of infrastructure and economy. For example, Foz do Iguaçu International Airport was developed serve and provides access to Iguacu (Iguazu) falls (Boniface & Cooper 2001, p.373). The falls provide employment to people who income there income from here. Research has also learnt the Iguacu falls makes the Brazil to conserve environment. The falls is move then just a water fall and host flora and fauna such as fish, mammals, insects and plants. The activities offered at Iguacu Falls include animal watching and learning, fishing and skiing to tourists (Bugbog 2016). The site also provides an opportunity for tourists to learn about different plants.

Explain how tourists will experience Brazil’s cultural diversity when they visit Olinda, Liberdade and Cachoeria

As stated earlier, Brazil is today a multicultural society due to human movement which stated in the 16th century. The movement brought in traders, explorers and slaves who settled in different cities, towns and villages in Olinda, Liberdade and Cachoeria among others. When these people came, they carried their culture along and influenced and got influenced from the locals. People of Portuguese, African, India and Japanese origins came and settled in Brazil. Today, many tourists travel to different Brazilian cities and towns to learn culture of different people. Insight Guide Brazil (2004, p. 248-249) claimed tourists are likely to experience Portuguese culture when they pay a visit to Olinda. Olinda churches and colonial house built by Portuguese. In this town, there are historical sites which display Portuguese signs, languages and artifacts. Another city which displays cultural diversity of Brazil is Cachoeira in Bahia. African who was brought to Brazil as slaves settled in this city and showcases their culture such as language and religion (Selka 2013, p. 410-412). Liberdade city also provides tourist with an opportunity to experience culture diverse nature of Brazil. Discovery Channel (2004, p. 200-201) affirmed that tourists can visit Liberdade to learn and have an experience of Japanese culture.

Description of the Rio Carnaval (Carnival) and the role of the Samba Schools and how tourists can participate in the Carnival

Rio Carnival is regarded as a popular festival which takes place in Rio de Janeiro on annual basis. The event is organized by the Department of Tourism prior to Lent and attracts up to 2.2 million people (Taylor 1982). Rio Carnaval started when the government realized that Rio de Janeiro had the potential to become a tourist destination. When the Portuguese Royal family chose the City as their preferred destination other immigrants followed bringing different ethnicities. During this even, the carnival is filled with the partygoers, music, and decorations from different samba schools. Basically, samba school is defined as group of people neighbour who have a shared culture and attend the event together (Boniface & Cooper 2001, p.354). Therefore the role of a samba school is representing a place and displays their culture to enable the revelers experience and learn. Furthermore, the role of the Samba Schools is to bring different cultures together to form a large community hence reducing cultural conflicts. Even though many contestants represent the domestic communities, tourist are also allowed to participate. The tourists with shared culture can come together and form a samba school and apply with the Department of Tourism for participation (Boniface & Cooper 2001, p.403).

How a well-informed tour guide would describe the variety of architectural styles in Itacare

A well informed tour guide would explain how culture has influenced the architectural styles in Itacare. This town in Bahia inhabited by the Amerindians hence the architecture represent their ideals (Palmer, 2014, p.451). The tour should also be able to tell the tourist that the architectural styles in Itacare is influenced by Portuguese who also came to settle in Bahia in the 15th century (Palmer 2014, p.451).

Favela tourism

Favela has turned out to be a popular tourist over the years. The tourism in this place inshas highly been contributed by culture and business of the locals. Favela communities are people who reside in poor housing states in the outskirt of Rio de Janeiro. Frisch (2012, p. 328) claimed that the life of the Favela community is linked to popular culture particularly samba schools, hip hop and street art. Similarly, the life of these people is greatly linked to crime, violent act and drug trafficking, a situation which have made them a target for the police (Frisch 2012, p. 327). These happening have attracted the attention of tourists from the world over.

Why can it be referred to as the commodification of poverty?

Favela tourism can however be interpreted as commodification of poverty by people of different opinion. The reason attributed to this is that people use the nature of this place to make money. First, Favela community has been displayed to the world as poor place in the film “City of God”. Secondly, Frisch (2012, p.335) claimed that as opposed to some communities where it’s the locals who benefit, in favela, it is the tour operator are who gain economically from tours. Also, it is the tour operators who plan what is displayed and told to tourists.

How the tourism has helped to bring about cultural revival for the Pataxo people of Bahia

When the Portuguese arrived in forest in Brazil in the 16th century, they found Pataxo who were not only hostile to them but also had a very unique and conservative culture. According to Grunewald (2002, p.1005), Pataxo culture did not allow them to plant crops or hunt within or around where they lived. However, their interaction with Portuguese and assistance by Brazilian authorities brought about culture revival to them. Grunewald (2002, p.1006) claimed that through such interaction, Pataxo people can presently speak Portuguese. Although they had had economic difficulty in the past, the influence of tourist has made them start a new culture of fishing, farming and art work to earn income (Grunewald 2002, p.1006, p. 1007). As results of culture they a have created a new approach of interacting with tourist. The practice entails making a path leading to huts they have built inside the forest.

Using the Kayapo of the Amazon jungle as your example, how does tourism enable tourists to know ‘the Other’?

Over the years, Kayapo has largely be lived in Amazon jungle and separated from the rest of Brazilians making it had to know their story and culture. However, Zanotti and Chernela (2008, p. 503) claimed that due to tourism which has opened Amazon jungle has exposed Kayapo culture to the world. The research shows due to isolation from other ethnic groups, Kayapo developed their culture and language which guide them in daily routines. The Kayapo people lives in hut with thatched roofs depend on plant for medicinal purposes and rely on fish and animal for food (BBC n.d). However, as logging activities in the Amazon forest increase, lives of the Kayapo have been threatened putting them at loggerheads with loggers. For instance, Kayapo people opposed construction Belo Monte dam along Xingu River since could affect fishing (Clendenning 2008, n.p). In other words Kayapo people are passionate about are conservation the environment and endangered animals (Zanotti and Chernela 2008, p. 504). Tourism has also enabled people to that despite being warriors, they are hospitable and make food and bed made from Bamboo to visitors.

The role Copacabana Beach plays in creating Brazil’s image

Copacabana Beach as a tourist destination has been used to create the image of Brazil over the years. The beach has contributed to both negative and positive image of Brazil. Copacabana Beach has continued host tourists who not only posed nudity while swimming but also hold wild parties. As a result, the beach has created an image of place and paradise of the wild populace (Bandyopadhyay and Nascimento 2010, p. 934). Furthermore, Bandyopadhyay and Nascimento (2010, p. 937) contended that as people come to Brazil they expect to Copacabana Beach as sexual playground. Similarly, the features of the Copacabana Beach have positively created of Brazil as unique and exciting tourist destination worth visiting (Rezende-Parker, Morrison & Ismail 2003, p. 244). The image of people of different countries converging at the beach has created a perception that Brazilians and social and hospitable people.

What are the positive and negative effects of staging mega-events in Brazil?

As a way to promote tourism sector, Brazilian government has consistently hosted mega-events. The events have had both positive and negative effects on Brazil. Some of the mega-events Brazil has hosted in the recent past include The 2007 Pan-American Games in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, Football World Cup in 2014 and Olympic Games in 2016. The positive effect is that people coming to these events spend in hotels and buy products and service hence promoting the economy. Similarly, the events position the country as a great country (Santos 2014 p. 1312). However, these events also have negative effects on Brazil. If the facilities are not up to the standards, they create a negative image of a country. In addition, hosting these events is very expensive and if the facilities are not useful after the events the citizens can rise against the government (Santos 2014 p. 1313).

Types of ecotourism attractions Brazil has created and the effects of ecotourism on the locals

The department of tourism has developed different types of ecotourism in its endeavor to promote tourism. Some of the ecotourism consist of forests, waterfalls, rivers, mountains and beaches among others (Zanotti and Chernela 2008, p.497). Iguacu Falls, Mantinquiera Mountains and Amazon forest are some of the popular ecotourism sites the country has continued to promote to tourists who fancy environment and conservation of flora and fauna. The government has constructed roads and airports to make the sites more accessible to tourist. Also, Grunewald (2002, p.1006, p. 1007) Kayapo people created paths to their villages in Amazon Rainforest to enable the tourists to access the forest. Ecotourism has a major effect on the locals. For instance, ecotourism also involves conservation of environment and animals hence reducing pollution. Ecotourism also enable the local community particularly Pataxo people to get income Grunewald, R 2002, p.1007)

The three forms of gastronomic experiences available for the tourists in Brazil

Tourists visiting Brazil will have unique gastronomic experiences in form of food and drinks from different ethnic people who live in the country (Bayor, 2011, p.180). The fact that there are Brazilians of Portuguese, Spanish and African origins offer the tourists opportunity to cuisines with these ethic touch. For instance, tourists are likely to experience the Portuguese dish Feijoada, Brazilian coffee and Brazilian cocktail called Caipirinha (Bayor 2011, p.181). These experiences show the positive side of cultural diversity.

The kinds of transport tourists use to visit Brazil and to travel within Brazil and transport experience to The Igauca (Igauzu) falls, Sugarloaf Mountain and the Amazon

Brazil has developed its transport system to attract these visitors. Brazil has improved its road network to enable the tourists to move from the airports to their destinations. The visitors can also experience air transport from airport to Amazon another. For instance, there is an airport at Foz do Iguaçu International Airport at Iguacu falls for easy transport to rest of the country. Visitors can also access the Amazon through air transport. Brazil has also developed rail transport and the visitors can either use standard gauge railways train, metro or electric train to transport across cities. There is also water transport for tourists who want to travel across the beaches such as Natal, Fortaleza, and Porto Alegre. The country has developed aerial tramway for Cable car to transport people between Sugarloaf Mountain and Morro da Urca (Crocitti & Vallance 2011, p. 53).

The forms of accommodation in Brazil for tourists

The growth of Brazil tourism has run parallel with development of real sector and hospital industry. Today, tourists can have great experience of accommodation in various facilities such as hotels, guest houses, restaurant, lodges and villages. For instance, there is Amazon Hotel which is ready to accommodate tourists camping at Amazon Jungle. At this hotel, the guest has the opportunity to watch animals and insects and study plants. Pousadas Hotel is also located in Rio de Janeiro where visiting Copacabana beach guest can spend their days when in Brazil.

For more detaile information kindly visit http://www.visitbrasil.com/

riginal brochure showing some of the Attractions

Understanding Travel and Tourism 1

Understanding Travel and Tourism 2

SBugbog 2016)


The report has assessed Brazil as tourist destination and has found not only a rich culture but also unique sites and hospitable people. Copacabana Beach, Rio Carnival and Amazon provide a positive image for the country and have attracted million of tourists every year. The tourism department has developed transport such as railway, airport, water and cable cars to enable visitor access attractive sites including waterfalls and Amazon forest. Today, people can access Pataxo and Payako people and learn their culture. As the country moves forwards it has set good pace which will make Brazilian tourism to compete with world best including the US, France and China.

Information References

Bayor, R 2011, Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans, Georgia

Institute of Technology.

Bandyopadhyay, R & Nascimento, K 2010, ‘“Where fantasy becomes reality” ‘: how tourism

forces made Brazil a sexual playground’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 933-949.

BBC n.d, The Kayapo, viewed 28October 2016


Boniface, B & Cooper, C 2001, Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism,

3rdedn., Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.

Clendenning, A 2008, Amazon Indians Attack Official Over Dam Project, Associated Press,

viewed 28October 2016 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/05/080521-AP-indians-dam.html>

Crocitti, J. J & Vallance, M 2011, Brazil Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic, South

Discovery Channel 2004, Insight Guides Brazil, APA Publications, Singapore.

Frisch, T 2012, ‘Glimpses of another world: the favela as a tourist attraction’, Tourism

Geographies, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 320-338.

Grunewald, R 2002, ‘Tourism and Cultural Revival’, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 29, no. 4,

pp. 1004-1021.

Insight Guides 2000, Insight Guide Brazil (Discovery Channel), APA Publications

Palmer, C.T 2014, ‘Tourism, changing architectural styles, and the production of place in Itacaré,

Bahia, Brazil’, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, vol.12, no. 4, pp.349-363.

Rezende-Parker, AM, Morrison, AM & Ismail, JA 2003, ‘Dazed and confused? An exploratory

study of the image of Brazil as a travel destination’, Journal of vacation marketing, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 243-259.

Santos, J.M.C.M 2014, ‘Brazil: an emerging power establishing itself in the world of

international sports mega-events’, The International Journal of the History of Sport, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1312-1327.

Selka, S 2013, ‘Cityscapes and contact zones: Christiainity, Candomble, and African heritage in

Brazil’, Religion, vol. 43, no. 3, pp 403-420.

Taylor, J.M 1982, ‘The politics of aesthetic debate: the case of Brazilian carnival’, Ethnology,

vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 301-311.

Zanotti, L & Chernela, J 2008, ‘Conflicting cultures of nature: ecotourism, education and the

Kayapo of the Brazilian Amazon’, Tourism Geographies, vol. 10, no. 4, pp.495-521.

Images References

Bugbog 2016, Brazil Travel Guide – South America, Viewed 28th May 2016 from


Petrasplace 2016, Map of Brazil, viewed 25 October 2016