Understanding Travel and Tourism Essay Example
UNDERSTANDING TOURISM AND TRAVEL 5
Understanding Tourism and Travel
Understanding Tourism and Travel
9a. How Multiplier Affects Works in the Tourism Industry
Multiplier effect is the means by which tourism expenditure is distributed throughout the economy. Money spent by tourists benefits other industries including fish industry and tourism and hospitality sector. For instance, destinations and hotels that offer fish in their menu can affect the local fishing industry. Tourism often creates backward linkages whereby tourism and suppliers of tourism industry are closely connected. The multiplier effect is greater in diverse economy that relies on many kinds of production. The effects of tourism are well distributed throughout the economy. Benefits yielded from tourism can benefit other industries. Therefore, growth of tourism sector can translate into the growth of other industries.
9b. why the terms ‘homogenisation’, ‘cultural preservation’ and ‘commodification’ are used to describe the cultural impacts of tourism
Homogenisation is the process where cultural societies lose touch of their traditional norms and traditions. For instance, international tourists have the ability to change a traditional society into a modern society. This is translated into cultural impacts. On the other hand, cultural preservation is the condition where people living in tourist destination and uphold their traditional culture for the purpose of presenting it to the visitors. Cultural preservation is a great way to preserve traditional norm. However, tourists may see this as being backward. This therefore affects the culture of people. Commodification refers to the situation where culture become commodities sold to the visitors. For instance, traditional dances are performed to tourists who are expected to pay in return.
9c. using the history of Phillip Island as your example, discuss the impact of tourism on penguins
For many years, penguins have been an important tourism attraction in Philip Island. In the 19th century, penguins were not an endangered species. However, introduction of other species led to their decline. There were no regulations to protect them. Recently, the government took over the protection of the penguins due to their importance in attracting tourists. The penguin population has increased dramatically in the Phillip Island Nature Park and more and more tourists come for visitation to see the penguins. The park protects the penguins but at the same time make money from tourist visitations. Therefore the realization that penguins can be a great tourist attraction has led to their increase in the recent years.
9d. How has international tourism impacted on the values, community structures and lifestyle of the people of Bakau in the Gambia?
Tourism has affected the collective and individual values, community structures and lifestyle of people. The social impacts of tourism are great in a situation where the host societies have different cultures from where the tourists come from. Bakau in the Gambia is among the societies that have been dramatically affected by international tourism. Bakau society has different culture from the international travellers. The society has specific values, way of life and community structures that are different from people of other societies. In the past, way before the international tourists started coming to the region of Baku in Gambia, the elders were considered very important and acted as role models for the people in the society. Their opinions were highly acknowledged and held a high status in the society. Nevertheless, globalisation and growth of tourism led to the growth of international tourism which affected the social structure of Bakau people. The increase in the number of international tourists in Bakau changed the behaviour of the young people as they started to copy the style and way of life of the visitors.
Young people admired the tourists and were intrigued to behave and act in the similar manner as the tourists. They shifted their focus from the elders to the travellers whom they considered their role models and teachers. The young people, popularly known as the beachboys offered their services as guides to the tourists and in return, they earned money out of it. Initially, most young people used to work in the farms but the arrival of international tourists led to them shifting their focus to offering tourist services. Farming was valued by the people of Bakau and was considered an important aspect of their lifestyle. However, tourism damaged this value and introduced value for other things such as money. In addition, farming was considered a great opportunity for people in the society to bond and create unity. It presented an important element of the community and acted as a source of food for the people. The arrival of tourists in Bakau led to the damage of this tradition.
The elders were not happy with the new arrangement since they knew the impact it would have on the society. However, they decided to accept the inevitability of the social change since it was a way for the young people to earn financial benefits that was needed in the society to support families and raise their economic status. This resulted to the development of the middle class among the young people who offered services to the tourists. The economic status of the young people raised and changed from how it was before international tourism emerged. People stated seeing and acknowledging the value of money. Due to juggling between two cultures, the beachboys became culture brokers. They started explaining about their culture to the travellers and also explained to their families about the tourists’ cultures. Nevertheless, such a manoeuvre was a difficult endevour which resulted to marginalization. Young people who were initially under an organised society structure were not fully members of their own culture due to international tourism. They were also not full members of the tourist’s society. This led to loss of identity among young people. They started behaving like the tourists and forgot about the expectation from their society. Their view of their society and their commitment decreased due to marginalization.
The community structure of the people of Bakau in Gambia was arranged in such a way that the elders took the senior position. The whole society was expected to respect them and all decisions and advice came from them. However, the coming of the international tourists changed this arrangement. The beachboys who acquired skills from the tourists now started acting like the source of knowledge. They shared knowledge acquired from the tourists with the rest of the society. The society ultimately changed how they viewed their elders. Elders were now viewed as ordinary members of the societies. It is evident that tourism led to the young people taking over the position of the elders in offering knowledge, skills and advice to the people of Bakau society. Generally, the value, community structure and lifestyle of people of Bakau were influenced by growth of tourism in the area.
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