Understanding Travel and Tourism Essay Example

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UNDЕRSTАNDING ТRАVЕL АND ТОURISM

SAMPLE EXAMINATION PAPER QUESTIONS

1a Explain how the agricultural revolution in the ancient world made possible the ‘push’ factors that enabled people to travel at that time. What kinds of developments in transport technology made it possible for people in the ancient world to travel? (At least 100 words)

When the agricultural revolution occurred, the river valley civilisations were able to grow surplus and trade it to become wealthy. The wealth gained helped them to finance their travel. Those who become wealthy than others were able to travel and known as the leisure class. This included the priests and warriors. The push factors that made it possible for them to travel are discretionary income and time. Apart from leisure, people also travelled to trade, entertainment, and motivation and invade other colonies. Changes in the modes of transport also made it easier to travel. This includes the wheels, wagons boats and roads which made traveling easier.

1b Discuss the ways in which the ancient Olympic Games differed from the modern Olympic Games. (At least 100 words)

The ancient Olympic Games were participated by Greeks only while the modern Olympic Games are international events. In the ancient Greece, Olympics were regarded as a means to train for war. This is unlike the modern Olympics which are intended to show world harmony. The main aim of modern Olympics has been to promote world peace through sports. This is through seeking for peaceful and diplomatic solutions to any conflict in the world. This is through use of dialogue and reconciliation. Despite this, the modern Olympic are not always associated with peace. This is evidenced by the 1956 Melbourne Olympics which were marked by the Hungarian uprising against the Soviet Union and Russian invasion.

2a Discuss the similarities between pilgrimage through the ages and modern tourism. (200 words)

During the early times, pilgrimages were made by the poorest people in the society and can be likened to the modern mass tourism. The early times pilgrims sought some benefits from their pilgrimage just like it is in the modern tourism. This includes mental, physical and spiritual benefits as well as social status associated with travelling. Just like modern tourism, early pilgrims took risks in their travels. They also carried spiritual books which can be likened to the guide books used by the modern tourists. Just like sightseeing and taking photographs, the ancient pilgrims performed rituals such as kneeling on the sites. Lastly, the ancient pilgrims collected relics which can be likened to the souvenirs collected by the modern tourists. In fact, pilgrims are defined as partial tourists where religion is the main activity rather than tourism. Pilgrimage can be divided into three stages which are; separation, liminal and re-integration stage. Tourists also pass through the same three stages and when they come back home, they gain a status just like in pilgrimage. For example, Muslim who visits mecca attain higher level of status since they have performed Hajji just like the way modern tourists are given higher status in their lives due to travels. This is due to fact that they have been to places where some of their friends and relatives have never been.

2c Apply Turner’s analysis of pilgrimage to the visits of Elvis Presley fans in Graceland. Why is this visit regarded as a secular pilgrimage? (200 words)

Elvis Presley is important to the people who visit Graceland where he was born since they are his fans. The main aim of this visit is to honour his memory in his home which is also his burial site. For those who visit his burial site in Graceland, they love his music. The visitors to Graceland separate themselves from the world in which they live in through changing their normal routines of their ordinary everyday lives. At the liminal stage, they have time for quiet reflection. At this point, they are in an extraordinary world and have a feeling of oneness with other pilgrims since they all have love and interests for Elvis in common. Like the ancient pilgrims, they are able to collect relics which act as the reminder of pilgrimage and Elvis while some may write in the walls of his tomb. Those visiting Graceland experience communitas through being in people who share common experience and interest despite the fact that they do not know each other in the ordinary world and may be very different. In the reintegration stage, they return to their ordinary lives where they are reintegrated at a higher level of status obtained from making the pilgrimage.

3a: Discuss the similarities and the differences among the following kinds of youthful travellers: Grand Tourists, trampers, drifters and backpackers. (200 words)

The grand tourists came from the aristocratic or upper class initially but later, the English middle class started participating in the 19th century. Trampers were unmarried tradesmen and mostly who travelled as they searched for work. Drifters, also known as nomads from the affluence were the children from western middle class families. The backpackers came from the middle class families. Travels of these groups are rites of passage, for the grand tourists the travels happened when moving from one stage of life to the next. Also, just like the grand tourists tramping was a rite of passage from youth to adulthood, from apprenticeship in their trade to master craftsmen. For the drifters, it was a rite of passage to the adulthood. For the backpackers, travel is their rite of passage into adulthood and the establishment of their own identity. For each group, they hoped to learn from their travels. The grand tourists wanted to improve their education. Trampers wanted to learn more on their trade and have adventure. Backpackers travel with an aim of learning and understanding the world better. For the drifters, they wanted to learn wisdom from the eastern society in revolt of western society in which they belonged. During their travels grand tourists used hostels and inns for accommodation. They also rented accommodations and servants to look at their needs. The mode of transport was river, canals, horses and coaches. For the drifters, they used the local transport and accommodation of where they visited. In addition, trampers’ accommodation was available at houses provided by the trade to which they belonged. Lastly, backpackers highly utilize guesthouses, internet cafes, travel agents, shops and restaurants.

3b: Why has backpacker tourism become so popular in recent times?

Discuss the characteristics of backpacker road culture. (100 words)

In the recent times, backpackers’ tourism has become very popular due to several factors. First, it is common for the young people to have gap year which in most cases they travel as backpackers. Secondly, the prosperity in the western countries has made it possible for the young people to afford traveling even without a life job. In addition, the cheap travelling costs have made it possible to afford airline tickets enhancing international travel. Modern communication makes it possible for the backpackers to keep in contact home. Also people believe that it is their right to travel. Moreover, there have been developments of road culture where backpackers wear worn clothes and carry own equipment with an aim of travelling inexpensive. The road culture aims at showing that the backpackers know how to travel cheap, and where to buy cheap goods and services.

3c: Discuss the characteristics of flash packers.

Flashpackers are older compared to the backpackers. They are affluent and hence can spend more money and buy expensive equipment. They also like to spend a lot in their destinations of travel. They have more cash since they have spent a lot of their time developing their careers. In most cases, the flashpackers are likely to have taken a break from their careers with an aim of traveling. They like travelling to unfamiliar places which are avoided by tourists. They also like to participate in the backpackers’ culture where they can stay in youth hostels. Flashpackers prefers to travel in private vehicles and avoids cheap transport. Through use of private vehicles, they are able to avoid other tourists. Flashpackers like to arrange their own itineraries unlike other tourists.

4a: How did Thomas Cook help to bring about the democratisation of travel? Why did the Industrial Revolution make his contribution to the history of travel possible? (100 words)

Thomas Cook was a Baptist preacher who played a major role in the democratisation of tourism during industrial revolution and started the modern tourism business. He was able to arrange for travel destinations for the people who could not afford to travel. He was able to come up with a package tour which meant that his tourists were provided with hotel and rail vouchers, knowledgeable guides, advice about health and protection against thieves at a uniform price. He was able to come up with a traveller’s cheque so that travellers were safe. He was able to make traveling a normal thing to do and women were able to travel with protection of the group they were traveling with. The industrial revolution brought about new transport inventions. It also helped in bringing about blocking of time and paid holidays. The wealth brought about by industrial revolution meant people had a lot to spend on travel. Thomas Cook was able to standardize travel in the way that the Industrial Revolution standardised production. If people paid the same amount of money for a tour, they got the same product. He was then able to enjoy the economies of scale and lower the travel cost through transporting large number of people.

4b: What contribution did Romanticism make to travel and holiday-making? Discuss the similarities between travel at the time of the Romantic Movement and contemporary eco-tourism. (200 words)

Romanticism is a movement that was at its peak in the late 18th and early 19th century where poets encouraged people to appreciate nature. This encouraged people to travel to the appealing natural settings leading to scenic tourism. Romanticism is also linked to literary tourism through encouraging visits to places which were associated with authors and poets. This led to more travels to these areas. Noble savage is a term from the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau referring to the uncivilised people such as the American Indians and the Australian Aborigines who at the time had not been impacted by evils of civilized world and science. Ecotourism is tourism based on nature. They are tourist who respects nature and do not want to harm it. They learn from the nature and respect those who live in these natural settings and ensures that those living there benefits from it. Travellers during the romantic era engaged in tours which are similar to ecotourism. This includes the visits to the untamed nature. They spent a long time with nature and away from large population of people just like the hard ecotourism activities.

5b: Why is demand for travel limited in Phase 1 of Burton’s tourism participation sequence? Account for the demand for travel and tourism in Phase 4 of Burton’s tourism participation sequence.

Based on burtons participation sequence, the phase 1 occurs during the pre-industrial period. The society at this stage depends highly on subsistence agriculture. Many people at this stage are poor and only few are rich to participate in tourism. Only few people travel hence there is no tourism industry. In phase 2, industrial revolution led to new forms of transport hence mass transportation was possible. There was rise in middle class and hence discretionary income which could be used for tourism. In the third phase, most people lives in cities and middle class is the dominant class in the society. Most people are able to participate in domestic tourism. The elite are highly involved in traveling to distant countries. In phase 4, countries are fully industrialised and already involved in high tech industry. People during this phase have both discretionary income and time. There is high demand for material possessions and are ready to go in debt to attain the lifestyle they desire. They spend more time in work to cover their debts. In the modern world, holidays are taken as part of being modern. At this phase, travel is fully democratized.

5c: Why has the People’s Republic of China become a major market for international tourism in the 21st century? (100 words)

When Mao Zedong came to power in the 1970s, he strengthened the Chinese economy through open door and four modernisations policies. He was able to strengthen tourism through investing in infrastructure. Tourism was encouraged in the poor regions in china. Deng economic policies led to an increase in wealth in most of Chinese people leading to discretionary income which could be spent on tourism. The government also created the annual holiday times which also led to discretionary time for tourism. There was revival of the historical sites such as the Great Wall of China. Through negotiating with the Chinese government, it is possible for a country to receive Approved Destination Status to receive Chinese tourists. This has influenced where the Chinese tourists travel internationally.

5d: Discuss the ways in which children can influence the demand for travel and tourism. (100 words)

Although children do not make decisions on holiday, they have the ability to influence their parents’ decision making. Children also engage highly in education tourism. An example is the TV program known as Balamory which was filmed in Tobermory on the Isle of Mull off the coast of Scotland. Young children pestered their parents to be taken there. This led to rise of tourism in the isle of Mull especially based on the tourists who were interested in heritage and wildlife conservation. The pester power of children led to rise in tourism leading to a rise in tourism.

6a: Explain how Cohen’s experiential and experimental mode tourists try to escape alienation by seeking more authentic lifestyles. (200words)

According to Cohen, people travel to avoid alienation. The alienated people are dissatisfied with their lives and travels with an aim of diverting themselves from the meaninglessness of their lives. This is what Cohen referred to as diversionary mode of travel. Experiential mode of travel according to Cohen involves travel to other societies to determine whether other societies are living meaningful lives than their own. The experiential tourists visit different societies away from their own. This is unlike experimental travel where people travel with an aim of experimenting with other lifestyles. An example is spending some time living in an ashram in India to experiment another lifestyle. In this case, the tourists immerse themselves in a different culture and experiments it. The experiences of the experimental and experiential tourists show that they are looking for authentic experiences when on the holiday through seeking societies which are very different from their own. They look for authentic societies which are in no way related to where thy come from such as western society’s tourists visiting Indian society as experimental or experiential tourists.

6b: In what ways do Lett’s charter yacht tourists satisfy their need to play? (100 words)

Through use of an example of a group of affluent American tourists, Lett was able to show how they satisfy their need to play. First, they had chosen a holiday and could do what pleased them just like in play where no one is forced. In fact, they were able to wear bathing suits instead of suits and ties. They were not gaining any monetary reward and they could behave in manners in which would be inappropriate at home. This is due to alienation from the world just like play which separates them from the real world. They did not want the holiday to last forever and had to return to their normal lives after the holiday. This is a holiday that had a psychological value and gave them a temporary break from the rules and regulations at home.

6d: What does Graburn mean when he uses the term ‘ritual inversion’? Why does the term help to describe the motivation of backpackers attending a Full Moon Party in Thailand? (100 words)

Ritual inversion refers to doing something opposite to the daily routine. It is regressing from the known standard behaviours which are acceptable in the society which one belongs to. For the backpackers attending the full moon parties in Thailand, they regress from the acceptable standards of their everyday behaviours in won societies. This is through dancing in beaches, alcohol, trance and techno music. Some of the activities done during these festivals can lead to violence and death. All this shows engaging in activities which are opposite of their daily routines.

7a: Your textbook (pages 88-96, 2014 edition; 86-95, 2010 edition; 97-107, 2006) refers to several kinds of ‘pull’ factors. Give an example of each kind of ‘pull’ factor. (100 words)

Pull factors are a reason why tourists are attracted to a destination. The first pull factor is geographical proximity to the market. Far places are attractive to the tourists if they have infrastructural accessibility such as roads, railway. Another pull factor is political accessibility. This is where the government at the destination have given permission to tourists to enter. For example, North Korea is politically inaccessible to tourists. Another pull factor is the availability of attractions for example the Grand Canyon or museums. Cultural links includes pilgrimage and allocentrics. Moreover, availability of services such as accommodation, transport, medical facilities and affordability based on costs as well as tourist safety are pull factors. Pro-tourism policies acts as pull factor by encouraging tourism. In addition, positive market image provided promotes a destination. This is through creating awareness using posters, videos and internet.

7b: How does an induced image of a destination differ from an autonomous image of a destination? Discuss the ways in which movies can provide positive and negative autonomous images of the Australian Outback. (100 words)

Images based on autonomous sources lacks vested interest to promote a destination. This includes books, films, news sources and educational studies. Autonomous sources may lead to a negative image of a destination. Induced images on the other hand are provided by the tourism industry. They use images with an aim of promoting a destination so that tourists can visit. Movie such as Australian Outback created both positive and negative images of Australian outback. It showed Australia as a place where people are stressed ad busy. It also shows the positive impact of outback on Lady Sarah who first comes to Outback as arrogant and humourless but later finds herself caring for a young aborigine boy whose mother had died. Despite this, other films on Outback portray a more negative image such as degrading effect on a young teacher who loses money and becomes a drunkard in the Wake in Fright.

7c: Use your knowledge of ‘pull’ factors to explain why many tourists are attracted to Mexico as a tourist destination. (100 words)

Tourists are attracted to Mexico due to accessibility through air, train, bus and cars. The country also allows tourists from United States, Spain, France, Argentina and Australia to stay in the country without a visa. The country has many attractions such as the Cancun Sea, cultural events and ecotourism. Ethnic tourism is promoted through the craftwork of Maya women due to their interesting souvenirs. The country has a full range of accommodation with five star hotels, cabanas and hammocks. The country has also been trying to use medical tourism as a push factor.

7d: Why is it possible for tourists to become victims of crime at a tourist destination? (At least 50 words)

Tourists can become victims of crime at tourists’ destinations since they often carry expensive objects such as cameras hence becoming a target to criminals. They are also ignorance of their destinations and do not know dangerous places. Their attention is diverted from pickpockets as they see unfamiliar sights and destinations. Since they are unknown in their destinations they can go missing unnoticed.

7e: How does the involvement stage differ from the development stage in Butler’s tourism area life cycle? (At least 50 words)

During the involvement stage, the number of visitors increases to a destination. In this case, the local people maintain the charge. The local people still welcomes visitors and their money. In the development stage, the local people lose control of the situation. The local people may become angry since the situation has not changed much. This is the main deference between the two phases.

8a: According to Leiper’s elements of a tourist attraction, how do the primary, secondary and tertiary nuclei differ from one another? (100 words)

The Leiper’s elements of a tourist attraction primacy nucleus are the main attraction that has caused the tourist to visit a destination. Secondary nucleus refers to the attraction which was not the reason the tourist visited a destination despite being aware the attraction was there. The tourist decides to visit it on arrival. Lastly, tertiary nucleus is used to refer to the attraction which did not lead to the tourist visiting a destination. The tourist is unaware of its existence and learns about it on arrival which leads to decision to see it. For the three nuclei, they differ based on the knowledge, reason and decision made by tourist to visit them.

8b: Explain the meaning of MacCannell’s term ‘sight sacralisation’. Apply the process of sight sacralisation to the Great Wall of China. (100 words)

According to MacCannell, an attractive sight is treated like a religious object even through it is not. Tourists just like the pilgrims go to a place to see a religious object a practice he refers to as sight sacralisation. Sight sacralisation applies to the Great Wall of China through elements of Naming, Elevation and Framing, Enshrinement, Mechanical Reproduction and Social Reproduction. In naming, the Great Wall of China was made something worth seeing by Chinese leader, Deng Xiao-ping. Elevation and framing was made through making the sight available for everybody to see it and separated from its surroundings so that everybody can see it. This was done through being given a world heritage status by UNESCO. The site of the Great Wall of China has been enshrined since Chinese people have a spiritual love for their country. The wall is a pilgrimage site. Pictures of the Great Wall of China are found in books, magazines and tourism publications. A lot of books have written about the Great Wall of China which is mechanical reproduction. Lastly, the name great wall of china has been used in Great Wall Sheraton Hotel in Beijing which is a form of social reproduction.

8c: Explain why ghost walks in Scottish cities may be described as contrived attractions. (100 words)

Contrived attractions are sites and sights which are specifically created with an aim of attracting tourists and are artificial in manner. This makes them very different from cultural and natural attractions. Ghost walks in the Scottish cities involves using actions hired to act as ghosts to attract tourists. In most cases, the ghost is part of the tour guide. The ghost acts as the necessary tourism attraction hence making it a contrived attraction. The attraction is also artificial sights which is an inherent characteristic of contrived attractions.

8d: Why is the site of the Henley-on-Todd Regatta in the vicinity of Alice Springs a contested site? (100 words)

A contested site is defined as a site that has different meaning to different groups of people. For the Henley-on-Todd Regatta, non-indigenous Australians have several meanings. They see it as a non-humorous response of the non-indigenous Australians to the harsh Australian environment. They also see it as a place where Australians and visitors can have fun running in a dry river bed to raise money for the local, atonal and international humanitarian causes. It is also a reminder of Australian creativity in the 19th century. The event also makes fun of the Henley-on-Thames race between Oxford and Cambridge universities and reminds of the fun that 19th century Australian Bushmen made of refined English people. In addition, it draws attention to the problem of water shortage in Australia. For the indigenous people, the Henley-on-Todd Regatta is a white people festival. It reminds them of dispossession by the white people through settlement. The part played by Regatta shows the triumph of the white people but the resilience of the indigenous people in the Todd River region shows the survival of the indigenous people.