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Transitioning from sedentary behaviour to regular incidental and planned moderate intensity physical activity

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Malnutrition in Children

Table of Content

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………2

Method……………………………………………………………………………………………3

Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………5

Rationale for future change………………………………………………………………………..8

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………9

Works cited………………………………………………………………………………………10

Introduction

The purpose of the task and the report are to identify causes of malnutrition in children, cases of children suffering from malnutrition has been on a rise of late and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), malnutrition has caused more than one-third of all the children deaths in the whole world. That has been due to lack of access the highly nutritious foods, may be because their parents or guardians lack access to the food due to high food prices. Other possible causes include poor feeding practices due to inadequate breastfeeding or because of offering wrong food to the children. Infections such as malaria, diarrhea, measles as well as pneumonia can also interfere with the children nutritional status (Davey 2015). Children are the subject in the research, under the consent of their parents or guardians, their diets were monitored for a given period while their health is monitored including any possible symptoms of malnutrition.

Every participant’s or subject’s parents or guardians was reporting at the health center, which was used as the research center, together with their children, at the end of every week so as to provide information about their children’s diet. They were being given a detailed form to fill; the form constituted with spaces where they would fill with the kind of food that they gave their children throughout the week (Davey 2015). Below is an example of a form already filled;

FOOD DESCRIPTION

Monday -12 pm

Pasta Fagioli (beans and pasta)

Tuesday – 12 pm

Grilled Chicken Salad

Wednesday – 12 pm

Grilled Steak Salad

Thursday – 9 am

Spinach Pizza

Friday – 8 am

Meatball Pizza

Saturday – 8 pm

French Fries and Spaghetti

Sunday – 8 am

Breaded Vegetable

The subjects were also medically screened every week, and their health information was then recorded. They were also examined for any symptom of malnutrition. Their health information or details were compared with the kind of food that they consumed.

The diagnosis was made after detailed medical history as well as physical examination, which includes an analysis of the patient’s blood pressure, tooth decay, patient’s weight as well as a heartbeat that may be as a result of malnutrition. Complete blood count may be done do determine the level of iron in the blood. An electrocardiogram can be performed so as to evaluate the patient’s heart and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Scan can also be performed (Davey 2015). Bone density can also be conducted on the anorexic or bulimic patients.

Discussion

Eating disorder can lead to malnutrition. Several factors can lead to eating disorders; they include; stress, environmental factors, genetics, cultural influences as well as psychological factors. Eating disorder can be developed by an individual at any age. However, it commonly affects adolescent girls. Treatment of this disease focuses majorly on the weight gain or the weight loss. The treatment also focuses on the underlying cause; that always has a psychological basis. Treatment varies a lot among the patients; it can take several months to years (Davey 2015). The patients always undergo medications, psychotherapy, exercise programs as well as nutritional education.

Some subjects that were found to be suffering from malnutrition had esophageal damage that could have occurred due to inflammation and the rupture of the esophagus. The affected subjects also found it hard to swallow food because they produced hydrochloric acid from their stomach and it irritated the esophagus since there was no food to act on. Hence, the subjects experience pain during swallowing. Some affected subjects were also found to be suffering from stomach ulcers as well as diabetes. Other subjects who were suffering from malnutrition experienced a complication in their blood clotting processes; others had gall bladder diseases while others developed arthritis diseases (Davey 2015). Lack of sufficient protein in the diet is linked to deficiency diseases like kwashiorkor which resulted in retarded growth, especially in kids.

From the investigation, some of the subjects (children) were found to be having anorexia. The subject’s medical history showed that the children’s mothers or sister had anorexia before. Stuffing oneself with food as well as starving activates the brain chemical which in turn produce feelings of peace and euphoria which also in turn alleviate distressing moods, that is, anxiety or depression (Davey 2015). Thus, that leads to mood enhancement.

Malnutrition can also sometimes occur in response to stress. When an individual is exposed to high level of stress, he or she may develop an eating disorder as a coping mechanism. High fats, as well as sugars foods, may reduce the body’s response to stress. The psychological factors can also cause malnutrition, it makes patients make unrealistic expectations which they cannot achieve hence, this makes them feel inadequate, and this makes them develop unhealthy eating habits. Patients with an eating disorder also lack the sense of identity hence will restrict their diets so as to prevent their bodies from maturing as well as to maintain a parent-child relationship that they depend on (Davey 2015). Some patients with eating disorder always do have obsessive-compulsive disorder that makes them to conduct strict rituals regarding food or to count compulsively calories.

Consequences of malnutrition may also include; organ damage, low blood pressure as well as irregular or slow heartbeat. The patient may also suffer from cartilage and muscle deterioration. Anorexics, as well as bulimics, can experience heart damage as a result of nutritional deficiency, if untreated; the condition can lead to heart failure or even death. The compulsive eaters, as well as binge eaters, can develop high blood pressure, heart attacks, high cholesterol, heart disease as well as strokes (Davey 2015). The bulimics also have increased the risk of dehydration as well as tooth decay due to the constant flow of hydrochloric acid from the mouth during purging.

Other consequences of malnutrition include esophageal damage that is as a result of inflammation as well as the rupture of the esophagus. The hydrochloric acid always irritates the esophagus, thus the experience patient pain during swallowing. They may also suffer from stomach ulcers and diabetes (Davey 2015). Other consequences are menstrual abnormalities, blood clots, breast cancer, gallbladder disease as well as arthritis.

On contrary to malnutrition, some subjects consumed excess protein in their diet, the effects of excess protein is that it can displace other nutrients like good fats, carbohydrates, minerals as well as vitamins which are essential in the body. Metabolism of proteins always results in the production of reactive oxygen species which can interact with the genome and results into mutation (Davey 2015). Such mutations can result in cancer since this diet contains no antioxidant like minerals and vitamins that can chelate the reactive oxygen species.

Some had excess fats in their diet, excesses fats in the diet are always also linked to various cardiovascular infections as fats tend to clog the heart as well as arteries that lead to heart failure and arterial diseases like arteriosclerosis or cholesterol accumulation or cholesterol associated diseases (Davey 2015).

Rationale for future change

Malnutrition may be prevented by providing nutrition education to the patient on how to plan their meals as well as what food that they should consider to be healthy. The nutritionists should also teach the patients about the negative impacts that poor eating habits have on the body. The nutritionists also can provide malnutrition patients with psychological counseling as well as exercise training. Cognitive behavioral therapy is provided to the patient with an eating disorder so that they can change the way they are thinking thus change their poor eating habits perceptions into positive ones (Davey 2015). Family counseling, where the patients together with their families meet with the therapist so as to discuss the events that may have led to the malnutrition so as to prevent its occurrence again in future.

Prevention of children from become undernourished is more effective compared to treating the children who are already suffering as a result of malnutrition. Malnutrition must always be addressed in the very first five years of a child that is because it is a very important period of the child’s life since the child will be undergoing both physical as well as cognitive development in his or her body (Davey 2015). If any nutrition program, instead of preventing malnutrition, it waits until a child becomes malnourished, then the benefits of the program will be significantly diminished.

Improving nutrition of a child, that is, investing in the early childhood nutrition, will always lead to increasing of productivity in their adulthood and even other long-term returns that will greatly benefit the child in his or her adulthood regarding his or her health. Thus, prevention of malnutrition has lots of benefits than treating it since the child may suffer irreparable harm if he or she is undernourished during his or her first five years of life (Davey 2015). Prevention of malnutrition benefits always lasts for a lifetime.

Conclusion

The research gave solid evidence on the causes of malnutrition in children and even the effects or impacts that it has on the children. Ethical research practices are important because it enables people to learn about ethical norms, persons also acquire knowledge concerning their lifestyle as far as their health is concerned. Prevention of malnutrition has more benefits than treating it. Malnutrition has several negative impact on children and should be prevented by all means for them to have good health during their adulthood. More than a few factors can lead to eating disorders; they include; stress, environmental factors, genetics, cultural influences as well as psychological factors. Diagnosing a malnourished child is done after a detailed verification of the child’s medical history as well as after physical examination.

Works cited

Davey, Sanjeev, «Study of impact of sociocultural and economic factors of mothers on the nutritional status of their malnourished children.» International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 4.2 (2015): 162-167.

Appendices

Appendix 1: Samples of Prescription of participants of the study.

Date 20/12/2015

PRESCRIPTION FORM

PATICIPANT IDENTITY

AGE: SEX: WEIGHT(KG):

Syp Multivitamins 10mls tds x2/52

Cotrimazole 960mg OD x1/12

Doctor’s Name: Dr Victor