Training and Development

  • Category:
    Management
  • Document type:
    Article
  • Level:
    Masters
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    2569

Training and Development

Training and Development

Types of Training

Training is the method for affecting people’s attitudes, expertise and skills to enhance individual, team and organizational effectiveness (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2004). There are different training methods that can be used by Kormaci Aircraft in order to increase employee engagement and knowledge. One example of training method is on-the-job-training. On-the-job training entails a number of training methods that are used when employees are performing their work (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2004). Examples of on-the-job training include coaching, internships, job rotation and apprenticeship. On the other hand, off-the-job training involves training method applied when employees are not in the work environment and may include programmed instructions and conferences etc. (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2004). One training method that Kormarci can utilize is computer-based training that involves the use of computers as the key medium of teaching and instructions.

Computer-based training is designed to facilitate learning process and offer instructional material to the employees (Moore, 2003). One advantage of this method is that it allows the employees learn during convenient times. Team training is another training method that involves the process whereby teams are empowered to enhance decision making, skills and knowledge, problem-solving and productivity. Team training enhances cohesiveness among people, motivates a team and facilitates relationship building. Another training method is apprenticeship. Apprenticeship involves a process where an individual being trained work with experienced people for a given period of time in order to promote knowledge acquisition and skill advancement (Moore, 2003).

Another effective training method is experience-based training through job rotation. Employees go through a number of job series so as to gain knowledge and understanding. This method is often successful in small organizations than in large organizations (Moore, 2003).

Another important training method is Communication skills Training. Being an effective and efficient communicator takes time. Good communication needs to be developed through an on-going training. In order for employees to be effective in the workplace, they need to communicate well. Communication skills training involve the development of both the verbal and non-verbal communication (Osman-Gani, Aahad and Rockstuhl, 2009). The training entails the basic communication dynamics, development of effective communication skills to enhance interpersonal relationships and learning skills in order to create an effective communication strategy.

Expatriates

Today expatriates play an extremely strategic important role in knowledge-related functions which include “local staff development and skills transfer from head quarter, developing top talent and future leaders of company, improving the trust of subsidiary, training local employees to improve their individual and team skills, implementing knowledge practice, developing sharing and transferring best practices, developing top talent and future leaders of the company and implementing knowledge practices (Wang,Waldman and Zhang, 2014).

Expatriates Failure

“expatriates failure” defines as inability to adjust in host country environment, low performance at overseas assignment and premature return or coming back to home country prior to completion of their foreign assignment (Chang,Wilinson and Mellahi, 2007). While expatriates are extremely important for operational and strategic success of organizations, the rate of expatriate‘s failure on foreign assignment is continuously increasing and it is estimated that 16-70 % expatriates fail in their assignment depending on the host country (Vesa, 2010). The most common and very costly problem facing multinationals in doing business in overseas countries is the high level of expatriate‘s failure and it has been stated that only in United States, 70% of all managers assigned to overseas assignment return before the ending of their appointment period because of their inability to adjust (Lee, Hung and Liu, 2006). In US only, expatriates failure cost MNE‘s approximately $2 billion a year.

Culture Shock

It is a psychological process in which people feel confused, unhappy, irritable, homesick, harassed and furious (Powell, 2006). It shows that people will feel puzzled and nervous because of the unusual circumstances and different cultural norms and standards. When people move to a new country and experience a new culture, they take principles, values and behaviors base on their own culture with them (Dixon-Woods et al., 2014). People may possibly experience culture shock if the new culture in entirely different with their home culture. Because the aircraft company expatriate’s training program is very minimal and limited for half day only, here are some tips on having an effective expatriates training program which will help expatriates avoid failure and overcome culture shock (Day, 2007).

Expatriates Training

In order for any company to carry out its operations successfully in international countries, it requires the help of expatriates (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). Expatriates are expected to incorporate the culture of the company with the culture of the international market. In order for expatriates to succeed internationally, they should undergo some training (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). Expatiates may undergo cross-cultural training. Without cross-cultural training, expatriates will pass judgment on other cultures outside their own. They will not be able to understand why host culture people behave the way they do. The main role of the expatriate training and development is to create cultural awareness. This is because, effective cultural training may assist people adjusting to different cultures of other people (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). This training assist expatriates cope with uncertainties and risks associated with the new culture. Few years ago, multinational corporations placed less urgency on offering expatriate training. Expatriate training entails a number of stages that are followed.

Pre-departure Training

“Pre-departure training is the first stage and researchers recognized that pre- departure is greatly effective once expatriates have arrived abroad” (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). It provides expatriates with the essential knowledge that they require instantly after arrival at destination e.g. the expatriates must know cultural imperatives and customs, what are the business etiquettes of that country, how to dress according to that environment, cultural adiaphorous, customs that are necessary and optional to attend for participants, and also good language training (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007).

Expat and Family Training

This stage of expatriate training is meant to increase the knowledge of an individual about the host country, it culture, values and day-to-day living (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). After this stage of training, the assignee acquires the required knowledge to blend in a new culture (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). This stage tremendously reduces the risk of cultural misunderstanding and enhances cross-cultural experience.

Pre- departure Visit

The information obtained during pre-departure visit can help in reducing uncertainties attached with the foreign environment and reducing culture shock Vesa, 2010. The training provides basic details about economy, politics, religion and social atmosphere. In order to make such visits successful, companies must provide a realistic view of what is the way of spending life in the host environment, as it will reduce the level of culture shock he/she will face after joining assignment (Vesa, 2010).

Post-Departure Training

A few days pre-departure training cannot fully prepare expatriates for problems they will face during their assignment so it should continue after setting in new country (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). Post arrival training is very useful in order to diminish culture shock and the difficulty of cross-culture adjustment. 2 days orientation is given to every expatriate after arrival. This orientation involve assistance of basic necessities like dealing with tax issue, schooling of children, setting up a local bank account and other general counseling of doing the basic things in host country (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). During the assignment, a mentor from home office is provided to expatriate who advice him on different issues related to work.

Expatriate and team cultural briefing

After post-departure training, the assignee is able to deal with culture shock and has acquired substantial amount of information about the host country (Brandl, Julia and Neyer, 2009). The next stage entails the training of both the expatriate and the team he will be working with. This cultural briefing offers some insights into cultural values and traditions of the assignee (Brandl, Julia and Neyer, 2009). Since the assignee and his team may be faced with communication problems, differences regarding communication as well as management style are clearly identified. This stage of expatriate training may entail in-person training (Brandl, Julia and Neyer, 2009). However, when this type of training is not promising, online tools can be used.

Project alignment meeting

This stage may be through an exchange using a telephone conversation or video conferencing. It involves the assignee and the host manager who discusses cultural differences and ways of doing business that may affect the organisational success (Black, Stewart and Gregersen, 2007). This stage entails discussion about reporting strategies, timelines as well as establishing milestones.

Evaluation and Appraisal

Adam O’Meara who is the current CEO of ‘AEROSPACE’ Aircraft is more concerned about the company’s revenue. In this presentation I’m going to discuss about the evaluation and appraisal process which needs to be adhered inside the concern to increase the profit of the company. Appraisal and evaluation are considered fundamental parts of a good management system (Jafari, Bourouni & Amiri, 2009). The effort that is put into appraisals and evaluations are a matter of judgment. Good appraisal encompasses being vibrant and clear about goal and objectives, estimating the costs of the worthwhile option and taking into consideration the risks that may be incurred (Scullion, Hugh and Collings, 2006). Appraisal entails the process of evaluating an employee’s performance with respect to productivity as per pre-determined set of objectives. On the other hand, evaluation also entails the review of performance and precedes an appraisal (Jafari, Bourouni & Amiri, 2009).

Evaluation may take place outside the perspective of defining an annual pay increase (Jafari, Bourouni & Amiri, 2009). Evaluation may be termed as an on-going process whereby an employee constantly receives feedback on his or her job progression. An evaluation measures concepts including job skills, work habits, leadership and communication. In addition, most at times, evaluation takes into consideration the goals agreement between an employee and his supervisor and may also entail self-evaluation (Jafari, Bourouni & Amiri, 2009). Evaluation is one of the important aspects which need to be practiced in ‘AEROSPACE’ Aircraft to judge the employees performance. Employees who are well trained needs to be evaluated to identify whether they are adaptive to any situations rather than just getting the immediate solutions. Below are some of the benefits of the performance evaluation.

  • Employees will come to know how they are performing, what are all the areas which they need to improve which will in turn increase the revenue for the company as well as the productivity of the employees.

  • Identifies the problems at the earlier stage and it can be corrected easily and fast.

  • Allows both employees and supervisors to communicate goals, expectations, and achievements within the team

Performance can be evaluated. By the HR’s of AEROSPACE aircraft by considering some of the factors which are listed below

  • Dependability and Adaptability

  • Cooperation and Teamwork

  • Quality of Service

  • Attendance and Punctuality

Performance appraisal is considered the end of the business chain procedures. Initially, appraisal starts with strategic plan that establishes the goals of an organization (Grigoroudis, Tsitsiridi and Zopounidis, 2012). These strategies determine how employee’s tasks and roles are defined. Such strategies form measures that will be used to evaluate employee performance. Appraisal is always prejudiced by a pre-determined scheme (Grigoroudis, Tsitsiridi and Zopounidis, 2012). There was no proper performance appraisals were conducted in order to motivate the employee’s in other subsidiaries apart from Australia. HR’s in other subsidiaries should conduct performance reviews for their employee’s which will boost up the employee’s mind to work towards a goal which will in turn benefit the employee who performed better by some appraisal either a cash reward or a valuable gift, but either the way is it will be a serious impact on the employees as a factor of motivation. Such appraisals will enable the employees to focus more towards the training phase by which it will in turn enable them to learn more things and even will tend to learn beyond the requirement by which the organization can be benefited for sure. It is important for the human resource management to take care of these ratings system and appraisal methodologies so that it can be reached throughout the organization (Grigoroudis, Tsitsiridi and Zopounidis, 2012).

In General, performance appraisal aims to identify the current skills of the employees (Grigoroudis, Tsitsiridi and Zopounidis, 2012). Any standard appraisal system consists of collection of data in which information is extracted from then converted into a real number called performance rating. Performance appraisal system varies within the organization according to the nature of the work and the position they hold (Grigoroudis, Tsitsiridi and Zopounidis, 2012). Few of the Performance appraisal methods which need to be followed in AEROSPACE aircraft are as follows.

  • Traditional method

  • Ranking method

  • Graphic rating scales

  • Management by objectives

  • Assessment center

  • HR Accounting (HRA)

To conclude, Evaluation and appraisal system is a mandatory aspect which needs to be followed in any organization to improve the standards of the organization and to increase the profit ratio of the company (Grigoroudis, Tsitsiridi and Zopounidis, 2012). The productivity of the employees is enhanced through performance appraisal and evaluation.

References

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Brandl, Julia & Neyer, Anne-Katrin 2009, Applying cognitive adjustment theory to cross-cultural training for global virtual teams, Human Resource Management, 48(3), 341-353.

Chang, Y. Y., Wilkinson, A & Mellahi, K 2007, HRM strategies and MNCs from emerging economies in the UK. European Business Review, 19(5), p. 404-419,

Day, R 2007, Developing the multicultural organization: Managing diversity or understanding differences? Industrial and Commercial Training, 39(2),p. 214-217.

Dixon-Woods, et al., 2014, Culture and behaviour in the English National Health Service: overview of lessons from a large multimethod study, BMJ Quality and Safety, 23(2), p. 106-115.

Grigoroudis, E., Tsitsiridi, E., & Zopounidis, C 2012, Linking customer satisfaction, employee appraisal, and business performance: an evaluation methodology in the banking sector. Annals Of Operations Research, 205(1), p. 5-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10479-012-1206-2

Jafari, M., Bourouni, A & Amiri, H 2009, “A New Framework for selection of the best performance appraisal method”, European Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), p. 92-100.

Lee, Hung-Wen & Liu, Ching-Hsiang 2006, Determinants of the adjustment of expatriate managers to foreign countries, International Journal of Management, 23(2), p. 302-311.

Moore, R 2003, Training that works: lessons from California’s employment training panel program. Kalamazoo, Mich: W.E. Upjohn for Employment Research.

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Rothwell, W & Kazanas, H 2004, Improving on-the-job training: how to establish and operate a comprehensive OJT program. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Scullion, H & Collings, D 2006, International recruitment and selection. In Hugh Scullion & David G. Collings (Eds.), Global staffing (pp. 68-86), London & New York, Routledge.

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