Tourism question Essay Example

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Tourism Development 7

Tourism Development

Submission Date:

2(a) Explain how the agricultural revolution in the ancient world made possible the ‘push’ factors that enabled people to travel at that time. What kinds of developments in transport technology made it possible for people in the ancient world to travel?

The agricultural revolution facilitated trade for some people to commercialize the surplus production and generate wealth. The wealth gained provided finance for tour travels. The agricultural moguls made rich by the sale of agricultural surplus got ‘push’ factors such as discretionary time and income to travel for leisure and acquisition of colonies.

The technological advances in transport that made travelling easier in the ancient world included the development of boats, wheels, wagons, and roads. Transport development is also a push factor that facilitated easier transport in the ancient world. For example, the Romans built roads for easier travel and control of their empire.

(Khuong and Ha, 493, Kainth, 1-4)

2(b) Discuss the ways in which the ancient Olympic Games differed from the modern Olympic Games.

Just like the people in the world today, the Greeks in the ancient world participated in the Olympic Games as athletes as well as spectators, but there were several differences between the ancient and the modern Games. Whereas it was only the Greeks who participated in the ancient Olympics, the Olympic Games in the contemporary world are done worldwide as an international event. Currently, Olympics are thought to enhance international harmony and also used for political purposes. In Greece, the ancient Olympics, however, were regarded as a way of training for war and the wars only stopped temporarily to facilitate safe travel to and fro games.

2(c) Why is the Tai Shan Mountain in China an important pilgrimage site? Explain how pilgrimages to Tai Shan have been modernised in recent times.

The Tai Shan Mountain intuitively provided a feeling of connection with nature. In ancient world mountains were viewed as sacred places that instilled fear and authority. They were believed to be springs of fertility and welfare and people worshipped faithfully and casted out dark forces on the mountains. Today, apart from being a source of rivers and medicinal plants, it provides a sense of identity for the citizens as well as tourists.

In the recent times, pilgrimages to the Tai Shan Mountain have been modernised through extensive accessibility by roads and airline transport. Modern means of communication have also facilitated advertisements through the web attracting more visitors.

(Barrett, 358-359).

2(d) Apply Turner’s analysis of pilgrimage to the visits of Elvis Presley fans in Graceland. Why is this visit regarded as a secular pilgrimage?

When the Elvis Presley fans make pilgrimage to the Graceland they are separated from their daily ordinary routine and their everyday lives’ activities. On arrival at Graceland, they undertake certain rituals as pilgrims. The pilgrims are then given audio headsets for guiding them through Graceland. When they come to the Meditation Garden, the burial place for Elvis and his parents, they go silent and take time to reflect. The mark on Elvis’s grave is an eternal flame. At this stage they share the interest in and love of Elvis causing a feeling of oneness. They also collect the remains of the pilgrimage and Elvis and also pieces of Elvis’s original tomb. Some pilgrims may write messages on the surrounding walls. When they return home and re-integrate with their ordinary world, they are in a status of a higher level than before, status gained by making the pilgrimage. The pilgrimage is considered secular because it is not connected with any religion.

3(a): Why were the travel experiences of the Grand Tourists, the trampers and the drifters regarded as a rite of passage? What kinds of knowledge did these youthful travellers hope to gain from their travels?

Travel is regarded as a ritual or rite of passage when it happens to enable a person to move from one stage of life to another. For Grand Tourists, travel known as the Grand Tour was considered as the rite of passage from the last childhood stages to adulthood. For the Trampers, tramping was a rite of passage from youth stage to adulthood. Regarding their trade it was a rite of passage from apprenticeship to master craftsmanship. Also, for the drifters, it was a rite of passage from childhood stage to adulthood.

Grand Tourists wanted to gain knowledge in music, fencing, dancing, foreign languages, and horse-riding. The trampers travelling aim was to gain more knowledge about their trade so that they could eventually become master craftsmen. The drifters wanted to learn more and gain knowledge about the Eastern philosophies by travelling in Asia.

3(b): Why has backpacking become a major form of youth travel in recent times? In what ways has the tourism industry supplied goods and services for the backpackers?

The improvements in transport services such as airline and road transport have boosted the backpacker travel in the world today. Further, Improved communication technology systems such as skype, mobile phones, and internet cafes have minimized the impact of long distance from home. In addition to being a rite of passage and an establishment of identity, the youth believe travel provides freedom from responsibility and enables them to understand the world and themselves better. The authentic desire to have encounters with people of different cultures also motivates the youths.

The tourism industry ensures provision of guesthouses, restaurants, shops, internet cafes, and travel agents that offer goods and services to the backpackers. For instance, in Adelaide, South Australia, the city is surrounded by hostels, restaurants, and buses particularly for the backpackers.

(Zaei and Zaei, 14)

4(a): Your textbook (pages 88-96, 2014 edition; 86-95, 2010 edition; 97-107, 2006) refers to several kinds of ‘pull’ factors. Give an example of each kind of ‘pull’ factor.

‘Pull’ factors refer to the reasons for tourist attraction to a particular destination. These include:

    • Proximity –areas close to them.

    • Accessibility- availability of transport e.g. airports, train stations, roads, and ports.

    • Political Stability- authorities allow and safety is assured.

    • Attractions- Stunning vicinity.

    • Good Services such as accommodation, catering, and medical facilities.

    • Provide value for money- Beautiful scenery.

    • Peaceful and secure- no wars

(Khuong and Ha, 490)

4(b): How does an induced image of a destination differ from an autonomous image of a destination? Discuss the ways in which movies can provide positive and negative autonomous images of the Australian Outback.

Autonomous images of a tourist destination come from educational studies, books, films, news sources, and documentaries and news sources. They may be positive or negative images.On the other hand, Induced images are derived from the present tourism industry and mostly present positive images of destinations.

A film named Australia in 2008 presented a positive Australian image as a place where people stressed by busy and over-crowded cities could find relaxation. An arrogant woman by the name Lady Sarah, comes to the Outback to find herself unexpectedly taking care of an Aboriginal young boy whose mother had died. The experience makes her happier and changes her to a more relaxed woman.

Another 2008 film, the Wake in Fright depicts a degrading effect on life of a young teacher, John Grant, in the Outback. He gets involved in heavy drinking with a group of ‘mates’ after losing his money in playing two-up in Bundunyabba, the fictional mining town. The ‘mates’ lure him to go on a kangaroo-shooting expedition where he is challenged to prove his manhood by killing a kangaroo brutally. The experience makes him hate himself and feel degraded to such an extent he attempts suicide. The Broken Hill people where the film was partially shot were unimpressed with the contents of the film.

(Banyai, 12-24).

4(c): Use your knowledge of ‘pull’ factors to explain why many tourists are attracted to Mexico as a tourist destination.

  • Mexico is accessible easily by train, air, bus, and automobile. Adventurous tourists prefer travelling along the rivers in between Mexico and Guatemala. Also, Cruise ships pass through Mexico where the passengers spend a short time to relax.

  • Citizens of Spain, the United States, France, Australia, and Argentina are permitted 180 day’s stay in Mexico without a visa. Citizens from other countries are required to have a visa.

  • Mexico has plenty of tourist attractions. A popular sea, Cancun, boasts of a sun resort and sand that make it popular with the young people. Celebrations of the Day of the Dead in the beginning of November attract cultural tourists. The World Heritage Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve attracts Eco-tourists.

  • Mexico boasts of plenty of accommodation services such as five-star hotels, hammocks, and cabanas.

(Stange, Brown, and International, 4)

4(d): How does the involvement stage differ from the development stage in Butler’s tourism area life cycle?

In the involvement stage as the number of tourists increase at a particular destination, services are provided by some local businesses. The natives are in charge and they welcome the visitors. The destination appearance remains unchanged and transport is provided by outside tour operators to bring the visitors to the destination. On the other hand, in the development stage Tourism increases rapidly at the destination and services are provided by outside companies and transnational companies. The appearance of the destination is changed by the construction of new buildings to provide services to the tourists. The natives are no longer the ones in control at this stage and maybe agitated by the new developments.

5(a): Your textbook (pages 61-71, 2014 edition; 59-70, 2010 edition; 69-81, 2006 edition) refers to various kinds of ‘push’ factors: economic, social, demographic, technological and political. Explain what each of these ‘push’ factors means.

‘Push’ factors have been defined as the prerequisites needed by people to be able to travel.

Economic factors refer to the discretionary income needed by people to be able to pay for travel expenses and for the travel experiences.

Social factors refer to the discretionary time needed by tourists to travel to various destinations. Tourism is depended upon people having leisure time. People also travel for education purposes.

Demographic factors refer to the composition of the societal population. Wealthy small families that mostly live in the cities and retire early are likely to travel a lot compared to poorer societies living upcountry.

Technological factors refer to improved transport services such as air transport as well as improved communication technology such as internet that is important in ensuring increased demand for travel.

Political factors refer to government regulations and stability in terms of safety that facilitate travel to the preferred destinations.

(Kainth, 1-4)

5(b): What does demand for tourism mean? What is the difference between effective demand and deferred demand? How is effective demand measured?

Demand in tourism is the number of persons who travel or wish to travel to various tourist destinations and consume the goods and/or utilize the services the tourism industry provides. Deferred demand refers to the number of people who have the discretionary income and the discretionary time for travelling but lack the knowledge of what is already available. Effective demand also known as actual demand refers to the number of persons who use the goods and utilize the services provided by the tourism industry.

Effective demand can be measured using the amount of discretionary income that tourists use and the number of persons who use the goods as well as services provided by the tourism industry, hospitality, and events industries.

5(c): Why was it possible for the modern tourism industry to begin in Phase 2 of Burton’s tourism participation sequence?

Phase 2 of Burton’s tourism participation sequence describes the stage in which a society begins to industrialize. Industrialization attracts more people from the countryside who come to live in industrial cities and towns to provide labour to the industries. These new city occupants will want to travel for holidays from time to time to escape the unpleasant aspects in the cities and have time to relax. Industrialisation also made societies wealthier providing the discretionary income needed to spend on travel tours and holidays. Industrialisation also resulted in the proper organisation of time for work, for staying at home, sleeping, eating, and for leisure. The Leisure time is the discretionary time in which the people could use as they pleased and could use it to travel. The employed people were granted some paid holiday entitlements for financial advantages in whichever way they chose to spend their leisure time. Industrialisation also facilitated the development of transport and communication technology that enabled long distance travels and communication (Lien, 15).

5d: Explain how changes in Chinese politics since the 1970s have influenced the demand for tourism in China

Deng Xiao-ping rose to power in 1970s in China and was set to change the country’s economy and the relationship of China with the rest of the world. Through the popular policies of the Open Door and Four Modernisations, he was determined to learn from the highly developed countries to be able to strengthen the Chinese economy. China invested highly in the hotel and transport construction so as to increase the country’s income through tourism. The Tourism industry was particularly favoured for the purposes of improving the economic situation of the poorer regions of China. Deng’s economic policies and regulations were a success in increasing the wealth of many Chinese people who now got the discretionary income to spend on the domestic tourism. The government set up annual holiday times called the “Golden Weeks” and people had more discretionary time besides the income to participate in tourism. Also, people had more freedom to travel a factor that contributed to increased tourist activities. The government encouraged revival of the Chinese cultural, heritage, and historical sites such as the Great Wall. The Chinese government also negotiates with other countries to receive Approved Destination Status for its citizens and those of the other countries.

6(a): Apply Berlyne’s definition of motivation to tourists who participate in the Full Moon Party activities in Thailand. Why is their participation a form of ritual inversion?

According to Berlyne, the humankind tries to seek artificial sources of stimulation and maintain a preferred level of arousal to compensate the shortcomings of the environment they live in. The artificial stimulation and the arousal are their motivations to participate in certain activities that bring about such satisfaction. For instance, tourists escape boredom and their routine activities of everyday lives by enjoying beach attractions, luxury hotels, restaurants, bars, and nightlife. The tourists who participate in the Full Moon Party activities in Thailand do the same for same reasons of escaping boredom and their routine everyday activities.

Their participation in the event is referred as a ritual inversion because it makes them leave their normal norms and social codes to participate in it (Graburn, 15)

6(b): How do Cohen’s recreational mode tourists differ from his experimental mode tourists?

Experimental mode tourists travel to other people societies to experiment with those people’s lifestyles, for example, choosing to spend some time to live in an ashram in India. The recreational mode of travel, according to Cohen, is the travel for re-recreation so that the tourists can return home enthusiastically to their own non-alienated societies (Cohen, 183)

6(c): What is likely to motivate tourists to engage in wildlife tourism?

  • Wildlife safaris satisfy the tourists’ desire for the kind of experience unavailable in their own home countries.

  • Wildlife tours enable the tourist to come in touch with the natural world and the wild animals to a great extent.

  • Wildlife tours satisfy tourist curiosity about certain animals they have read or heard about but not seen in flesh.

  • Tourists engaging in wildlife tourism are able to compare the lifestyles of the animals with those of their own.

  • For some tourists, wildlife safaris remind them of the hunting expeditions undertaken by their ancient ancestors. For instance, Buffalo-hunting is a tourist attraction in the Northern Australia.

  • Wildlife tourism facilitates the development of photographing skills where some tourists are motivated to photograph wildlife.

6(d) In what ways do Lett’s charter yacht tourists satisfy their need to play?

    • The tourists could engage in whatever activity the pleased as they had chosen to have the holiday.

    • They were able to wear holiday clothes and bathing suits instead of their routine suits of their everyday lives. They could drink alcohol for breakfast.

    • There were no monetary gains from the holiday.

    • Separated from their other world, they could behave in ways they could not have behaved at home; for instance, they could tell rude jokes, wear rude t-shirts, and could engage in sexy dances.

    • The holiday’s psychological value was to allow them to temporarily break away from their normal routine life rules and regulations (Lett, 37)

8(a): According to Leiper’s elements of a tourist attraction, how do the primary, secondary and tertiary nuclei differ from one another?

According to Leiper, the primary nucleus constitutes the attraction that causes the tourist to visit the particular destination. The secondary nucleus refers to an attraction other than that caused the tourist to visit the destination but already knew the attraction existed and decided to visit on arrival. The tertiary nucleus is an attraction the tourist does not know it existed and was not cause of the tourist to visit the destination but learns about it on arrival and decides to visit.

8(b): Explain the meaning of MacCannell’s term ‘sight sacralisation’. Apply the process of sight sacralisation to the Taj Mahal in India.

According to MacCannell, the term ‘sight sacralisation’ is an attraction or sight that is treated like it is religious object although it might not be religious. It involves stages discussed in the below case.

  • The Taj Mahal in India and sight sacralisation

    • The Taj Mahal in India is a mausoleum constructed by the Mogul Emperor, Shahjahan, his wife Mumtaz Mahal who passed out during a childbirth in 1631.

    • NAMING – The Taj Mahal attracted many people to see its beauty but pal upon completion. The British made it famous by encouraging its people to come and see it in the 18th century. In the 20th century, tourists from India became enthusiastic about visiting the building just like the Western tourists.

    • ELEVATION AND FRAMING –The building is special and separated from others because it is special.

    • ENSHRINEMENT – The Taj Mahal location is now a holy place, moreso to Muslims due to its association with their religion.

    • MECHANICAL REPRODUCTION – Tourists are able to buy books, models, and pictures of the Taj Mahal.

    • SOCIAL REPRODUCTION – This occurs when cities, groups, and regions start naming themselves after the famous attractions. In India, Hyderabad a hotel has been named Taj Mahal.


Banyai, Maria, “The Image of Tourism Destinations: A Case of Dracula Tourism”, Recreational and Leisure Studies-Tourism Policy and Planning, (2009), pp. 1-121.

Barrett, T. “Finding a Place for Mountains in Chinese Religion: Bibliographic and Ethnographic Persepectives”, Review Article, pp. 357-374.

Cohen, Erick “A phenomenology of tourist experiences”, Sociology, 13.2 (1979), pp. 180-201.

Graburn, Nelson “The anthropology of tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research, 10.1 (1983), pp. 9-33.

Kainth, Gursharan “Push and Pull Factors of Migration: A Case Study of Brick Kiln Migrant Workers in Punjab”, Munich Personal RePEc Archive, (2010), pp. 1-34.

Khuong, Mai and Ha, Huynh, “The Influences of Push and Pull Factors on the International Leisure Tourists’ Return Intention to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam-A Mediation Analysis of Destination Satisfaction”, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 5.6 (2014), pp.490-496.

Lett, James “Ludic and liminoid aspects of charter yacht tourism in the Caribbean”, Annals of Tourism Research, 10 (1983), pp. 35-56.

Lien, Phan, “Tourist Motivation and Activities: A Case Study of Nha Trang, Vietnam” (2010), pp. 1-42.

Stange, Jennifer, Brown, David, and International, Solimar, “Tourism Destination Management: Achieving Sustainable and Competitive Results” (2010), pp. 1-142.

Zaei, Mahin and Zaei, Mansour “The Impacts of Tourism Industry on Host Community”, European Journal of Tourism Hospitality and research, 1.2 (2013), pp. 12-21.