To what extent do leaders influence organisational effectiveness? Essay Example

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    Management
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    Undergraduate
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ТО WHАT ЕХTЕNT DО LЕАDЕRS INFLUЕNСЕ ОRGАNISАTIОNАL ЕFFЕСTIVЕNЕSS

Introduction

Every organization regardless of whether its business organization or even a country seeks to be more effective in realization of its goals and objectives. As such, they must operate under leaders who are effective and goal oriented as argued by Ahmadi et al (2012, pp 250). No one is born leaders but for one to be leaders then he or she must strive to develop into effective leaders through a never ending process of self study, education and training as well as experience. Leadership therefore is the process by which an individual influences others to accomplish an objective and direct the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Therefore, this paper explores and analysis how the leaders influence the effectiveness of an organization in realization of its goals and objectives as required by the society (Ahmadi et al, 2012, pp 250).

In addition, as highlighted by Bernadette et al (1992, pp 192) leaders carry out their mandate through application of their attributes such as personality, culture, beliefs ethics knowledge and skills. In any organization of any kind, a leader is very paramount to the substantial development of the organization as he/she facilitate in realization of the goals and objectives of the organization. Different people have different personality and so are organizational leaders. The different personality predisposed by different leaders affects the effectiveness of the organization in realization of the set goals as noted by Boas & et al (1998, pp 400) in his book. There are many theories and concepts that have been devised by different scholars explaining and analyzing the role that leaders play in organization and their influence on the effectiveness in an organization either negatively or positively. At the same time the scholars have recommended different specific skills of leadership to leaders to adopt them as we will see later (Boas & et al, 1998, pp 400). In this regards psychologists and business management scholars have developed literature that explain different types of leaders who includes aristocratic, transformational, charismatic, democratic and servant. Additionally, there are servant leadership, task oriented leadership transactional and many others (Boas & et al, 1998, pp 400).

Autocratic leader are those leaders who exact high level of power over his or her employees or team members as Bohn (2003) claimed in his journal. In this, the subordinate can only be allowed very few opportunities to give their opinions and suggestions on matters concerning the organization as Bohn (2003) further highlighted. As such, aristocratic leaders (manager) posses total authority and impose their will on the employees and they should not be challenged. When subordinate are not consulted they becomes reluctant and they become less creative while carrying out their duties. In most cases this type of leadership is dominated by detest from the employees (Dirks Kurt & Ferrin Donald, 2002, pp 620). As such this type of leadership is very detrimental in an organization since the creativity of the subordinate staffs is not effectively utilized. High level of absenteeism is bound to happen and the employees never care of the welfare of the organization. Mostly, cooperate psychopathetic leader (posses personality disorder where they lack empathy) uses this method and they leads to poor performance of the organization since they do not care of the employees welfare since thy usually don’t have empathy. These leaders mostly use their authority excessively by bossing around their subordinates instead of being a leader to them (Bohn,2003, pp 21)

At the same time, another leadership style is democratic style where the relationship between the leader and the working team is more democratic than the so said aristocratic leadership. As such, the workers usually have a say in decision making on matters affecting both the organization and the employees. Through this the leaders transfers responsibility and flexibility to the subordinates thus facilitating the reinforcement of confidence in the organization. High level of creativity equally enhanced since the attitude of owning up the organization by the workers is cultivated through consultations. Employees become aware of their strengths and weaknesses (emotional intelligence) thus very realistic goals and moves taken by workers. This leads to high citizenship in work place which in turn increases the productivity of the firms. Leaders in this style lead to high effectiveness of the organization and high realization of the organization goals and objectives. Also it leads to the growth of the employee’s skills as creativity is highly encouraged and there is high sense of motivation. Emotional interagency which is cultivated by this leaders facilitate the workers gain self awareness, self management, social skills and social awareness hence acting as a catalyst of high workers citizenship in the work place.

Transactional leadership style is a theory of leadership which was fist devised by sociologist Max Weber and further developed by Bass (1985) and it focuses on the role of supervision organization and group performance. In addition the theory advocates for the establishment of relations between the leader and the employees (Burns, 1978). As such the theory assumes that people perform their best when the chain of command is definite and clear. At the same time it assumes that employees are motivated by rewards and punishment (Drunskat, 1994, pp 102). Indeed the rewards are contingents up on the performance of the employees where the good performance is rewarded while poor performance is punished. To monitor workers performance then the rules and regulation are established and creativity is of workers is not encouraged. This leadership style becomes effective in situations where problems are simple and clearly-defined (Drunskat 1994, pp 102) (Hans, 2011, pp 6)

Transformational leader is one who takes control of the situation by conveying clear vision of the group’s goals, have a marked passion has an ability to make the rest of the group feel recharged and energized as echoed by Hans (2011, pp 6).The theorists of this theory notes that this a style of leadership leads to positive change in those who follow. According to the theorists transformational leaders are generally energetic enthusiastic and passionate in their mandate as leaders (Kim Lee & et al, 2007, pp 453). They not only focus on the organization welfare but they also focus on the development and improvement of the employees. Equally the leaders’ posses’ intellectual stimulation where they not only challenge status quo but also stimulates creative thinking of the employees. They do this by encouraging members to explore new things and providing new opportunities to learn like in-service training of the members. (Kim Lee & et al, 2007, pp 453)

At the same time transformational leaders undertake individualized considerations by offering support and encouragement to individual followers as Lian & et al (2002, pp 70) pointed. This is necessitated by maintaining good communication between the workforce and the leaders where sharing of ideas becomes is at ease (Taly & et al, 2002, pp 737). Transformational Leaders also possess inspiration motivation which is exhibited in how they articulate the vision to the employees thus facilitating them to experience the same passion and motivation to fulfill the goals and objectives. (Timothy et al, 2004, pp 761).As such, transformational leaders posses idealized influence which helps them serve as a role model to the employees. Organizations lead by these leaders usually has high productivity since there is high maintenance of employees citizenship. There is overall increase in effectiveness of organizations in regards to the expected results. (Westheimer, 1999, pp 72).

Conclusion

Leaders are the steering wheels of any organization and they determine the effectiveness of the organization goals and objectives. Their skills and personality determines the kind of leadership they offer which in turn leads either to the fall or rising of any firm. As seen in this analysis for any leaders to be efficient and effective they need to adopt the best theories for instance transformational leadership and incorporate in their mandate so as to scale firms to heights of prosperity.

References:

Ahmadi Seyyed, Ahmadi Freyedon & Zohrabi Mina, 2012, Effect of the Leadership Styles on the Organizational Commitment Given the Staff Personality Traits. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business vol 4(1) pp 248-264

Bass Bernard, 1985, Leadership and Performance. New York, Free Press.

Bass Max Weber, Riggio, 2008, Transformational Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Bernadette Racicot, Rosalie Hall, 1992, Chapter Current Trends in Managerial Training Original Research Article. Advances in Psychology, Vol 82 (7) pp 185-227

Boas Shamir, Eliav Zakay, Esther Breinin & Micha Popper, 1998,Correlates of Charismatic Leader Behavior in Military Units: Subordinates’ Attitudes, Unit Characteristics, And Superiors’ Appraisals of Leader Performance, vol 41(4) pp 387-409

Bohn James, 2003, How Leadership Influences Organizational Effectiveness. The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.

Burns Macgregor, 1978, Leadership. New York. Harper & Row

Dirks Kurt & Ferrin Donald, 2002, Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 87(4) pp 611-628

Drunskat Vanessa, 1994 , Gender Leadership Style Transformational and Transactional Leadership in The Roman Catholic Church. Leadership Quarterly vol.5, No. 2 pp 99-119

Hans Ladegaard, 2011 Doing power at work: Responding to male and female management styles in a global business corporation Original Research Article. Journal of Pragmatics, Vol 43 (1) pp 4-19

Kim Lee, Thomas Cassidy, 2007, Principles of design leadership for industrial design teams in Taiwan. Original Research Article
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Lian Lee, Tui Low, 2002, Leadership Styles and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Effect of Subordinates’ Competence and Downward Influence Tactics .Journal of Applied Business and Economics vol. 13(2) pp 59-96

Taly Dvir, Dov Eden,Bruce J. Avolio,and Boas Shamir, 2002, Impact of Transformational Leadership on Follower Development and Performance: A Field Experiment, vol 45 (4) pp 735-744

Timothy Piccolo & Ronald, 2004, Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta- Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 89(5) pp 755-768

Yu, H., Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2002). The effects of transformational leadership on teachers’commitment to change in Hong Kong. Journal of Educational Administration, 40(4) pp 368-389.

Westheimer, J. (1999). Communities and consequences: An inquiry into ideology and practice inteachers’ professional work. Educational Administration Quarterly, vol 35(1) pp 71-105.