Title: Writing Essay Example

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Title: Writing Essay

QUESTION 1 5 Marks

Table 1 outlines Australia’s production of renewable energy over 7 years from 2001-2008. Describe the trend indicated in the table.

The table 1 (Appendix1) is extracted from Australian ABARE, 2009 on energy outlining the trend in the production of renewable energy in Australia over a period of seven years staring from 2001 to 2008.   The data illustrate a steady increase of energy production. The general production of renewable energy increased by 13 percent between the seven year periods 2001and 2007. However, there was a decline in production of hydroelectric energy, which can be partly attributed to drought or dry conditions in many parts or regions within Australia (ABARE, 2009).

Question 2 5 Marks

Write an essay plan for a 400 to 500 word essay written in response to the following question: Outline some challenges of communicating and advising scientific knowledge to the public. Using evidence from your 3 text extracts, discuss how these challenges might be overcome.

ESSAY PLAN

Essay questions paraphrase: What are some of the challenges in communicating and advising scientific knowledge to the public? What is reported in the literature?

Main purpose / Structure of the Paper: Approximately 50-100

-A short introduction to the Topic: Starting with a topic statement, highlighting briefly the importance of scientific knowledge to the public, highlight existing gap.

-Main Purpose of the paper/essay- The paper seeks to fill information gap, the main aim of the paper is to discuss some of the challenges communicating and advising scientific knowledge to the public and provide recommendations/measures in controlling the challenges. Following the brief introduction, the paper presents the main points. The last part is conclusion and recommendation drawn from the main body.

Main Body

Topic 1: Ineffective or lack of dialogue sessions

-Evidence for lack of effective dialogue (Zorn et al, 2010)

-Caused by inconsistencies about the nature of an effective dialogue

-Negative attitudes of scientists

-existing anxiety/apprehension about dialogue with the public as a result of perceived knowledge

-The nature of dialogue session has a strong bearing on the public’s attitude especially on their trust [Evidence study by Zorn et al (2010)]

Topic 2: Poor use of scientific Information

-public’s inability to understand scientific knowledge (Parks and Theobald, 2011).

-lack of proper feedback for fear of either seen as ignorant or being irrelevant thus affecting a two-way based communication (Parks and Theobald, 2011).

-Preconceived ideas and interpretations

Topic 3: Uncertainties regarding certain scientific knowledge

Evidence- like the case of global warming (Nurse, 2013) due to:

-lack of expertise, rigorously and peer reviewed data

-Some scientists are not open in information delivery.

— Complexities in the global climate system may also encourage uncertainties (Nurse, 2013).

Conclusion and Recommendations

Communicating scientific information to the public is faced with numerous challenges (relist the challenges). However this can be countered if appropriate measures are undertaken.

Question 3 20 Marks

Outline some challenges of communicating and advising scientific knowledge to the public. Using evidence from your 3 text extracts, discuss how these challenges might be overcome.
Write a 400 to 500 word essay written in response to the following question:

(Note: this is the same question for which you wrote your outline in Question 2 above.)

Challenges of Communicating and Advising Scientific Knowledge to the Public

Introduction

With the current dynamic science and its impact on society, there is more reason than ever before to interact with the general public. However, the interaction is faced with a number of challenges. The main aim of the paper is to discuss some of the challenges and provide recommendations appropriately.

One of the challenges is ineffective or lack of dialogue sessions. Although it is very crucial in communicating scientific knowledge, dialogue is often inefficient or completely absent in most scientific foray. According to Rowe and his colleagues (cited in Zorn et al, 2010), there is limited or lack of tangible evidence showing the existence of effective dialogue. This may be attributed to inconsistencies on effective dialogue session including the nature of the dialogue and its effectiveness in tackling particular scientific challenges (Zorn et al, 2010). Scientists’ attitudes and personality traits coupled with existing anxiety/apprehension about dialogue with the public is also a challenge due to perceived knowledge gap (Parks and Theobald, 2011). In addition, there is lack of objectivity brought about by the participant’s biases, undue expertise privileges.

Poor use of scientific Information is also a challenge as a result of perceived public’s inability to understand scientific knowledge (Parks and Theobald, 2011). Furthermore, it is caused by lack of feedback especially from the public for fear of either seen as ignorant or putting forth irrelevant questions. This affects a two-way based communication (Parks and Theobald, 2011). The other challenge is attributed to preexisting ideas and interpretations as illustrated by Parks and Theobald’s (2011) study which revealed that the locals, who were closer to the proposed renewable projects tended to be more pessimistic about the project compared to those living away from the project site thus implying the use of a scientific knowledge is affected by preconceived knowledge and the nature of the proposals hence a need for scientists to reconsider how they perceive public’s engagement with information.

The last challenge is uncertainty on some scientific knowledge due to mixed opinions like the case of global warming (Nurse, 2013). According to the first school of though, there is no global warming but if it actually taking place, then there it is not linked to the human agency. The other line of argument is that global warming will be extremely disastrous. All these may be due to lack of expertise, rigorously and peer reviewed data. Some scientists are not open in information delivery. Complexities in the global climate system may also encourage uncertainties (Nurse, 2013).

In conclusion, communicating scientific information to the public is faced with numerous challenges such as ineffective or lack of dialogue, poor engagement with scientific information and uncertainties on certain scientific knowledge. To correct this, there is need for proper and well researched scientific knowledge to enhance its authority. Second, the knowledge should be made more “human’ by encouraging dialogue and popular engagement with scientific knowledge.

Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE). 2009. Energy statistics – historical.

Nurse, P. 2013. Making Science Work. The Science Show, Radio National: Australia Broadcasting Corporation.

Parks, J. M., K.S. Theobald 2011. Public engagement with information on renewable energy developments: The case of single, semi-urban wind turbines. Public Understanding of Science, 22, 49-64.

Zorn, T. E., J. Roper, C. K. Weaver, & C. Rigby. 2010. Influence in science dialogue: Individual attitude changes as a result of dialogue between laypersons and scientists. Public Understanding of Science, 21.

Appendix 1: Table

Table 1.AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY (a)

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Increase

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Other biofuels (b)

Hydroelectricity

Solar hot water

Wind and solar photovoltaic

Wood and wood waste

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Electricity and heat

Source: ABARE. 2009
Includes biogas, black liquor, crop and municipal waste