Title: Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle Essay Example

Title: Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle

Abstract

This report discusses a proposed smart design of an Air-Deployable Amphibious Vehicle (ADAV) for use in the Australian Defense Forces. It proposes the use of new capabilities that utilize high end technologies improving their functionality over the old designs currently in use. The report also gives an overview of the adoption and implementation of the system into every day operations and how to phase out the old system. Instruction on the personnel training to use these technologies, as well as user instructions on repair and maintenance is also detailed here in.

The capability technologies discussed in this paper are CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) detection systems, Mobile gun systems and Defensive operational and mobility.

Key Words: (ADVA, warfare, ammunition)

Table of Contents

Abstract ii

Abbreviations iii

Background Information 1 1.0

1.2 Procurement and Maintenance 2

1.3 Operation concept 2

Capabilities 3 2.0

Material Detection Systems 3 2.1

Mobile Gun System 4 2.2

Defensive Operation and Mobility 5 2.3

Conclusion 6 3.0

References 7 4.0

List of Abbreviations Used

Abbreviation

Air-deployable amphibious vehicle

Defense Material Organization

Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear

Toxic Industrial Chemicals

Land Engineering Agency

  1. Background Information

An Air-Deployable Amphibious Vehicle is a specialized kind of vehicle with great flexibility for aquatic and terrestrial mobility, making it a very convenient mode of transportation. It is used to ferry military personnel, especially for operations being conducted in remote places like on or near water bodies such as seas, rivers, estuaries or littoral environment. The Air-deployable amphibious vehicles have been used by military personnel for years to navigate through remote place undetected, owing to their great stealth capabilities. There have been significant revolution in the capabilities and technological advancements of these vehicles to improve their functionality [ CITATION Mar101 l 1033 ].

The need to improve the security apparatus has been increased following the onset of terrorism activities around the world in the recent past. This has resulted in most governments` defenses shifting to a global perspective in their defense strategies from the traditional bi- polar strategy in order to effectively deal with the diverse and advanced warfare. In the current century, warfare has drastically shifted its focus from the convenient easy to reach terrains to areas considered to as Special Operations for Low Intensity Conflicts (SOLIC), special warfare as well as mine war fare among others. This is done to reduce the collateral damage and losses experienced in the event of a war. Therefore, in order to ensure effective mobility of military personnel in such cumbersome terrain, there is need to improve the existing transport vehicles. One such technology to ensure that this objective is met is the invention and development of the ADAV.

The name ADAV is derived from the mode of deployment of the vehicle which conventionally, is by an aircraft or a sea vessel at a desired. ADAVs are based on two technologies, the air-cushion technology, commonly referred to as hovercrafts and the wheeled technologies. The hover craft technology, however, is more preferred due to its flexibility and ability to travel on both land and water [ CITATION Men14 l 1033 ]. Apart from water and lad, these vehicle have effective locomotive capabilities on other terrain such as ice, mud, marsh, and swamp among others.

The Australian Defense Forces has expressed concern over relatively obsolete technology that is overwhelmed by their current needs with regard to security. This has led to the need for highly flexible vehicles that can facilitate the deployment of military personnel areas considered inaccessible by traditional means. It is also necessary that the vehicle will be compatible to the operations of the military, so as not to require a lot of training on the part of the personnel, and to be fully integrated into the relatively advanced communication network.

1.2 Procurement and Maintenance

The air deployable amphibious vehicle under consideration will be managed and maintained in the existing protocols of the Australian defense. The Defense Material Organization (DMO) will be in charge of the procurement and maintenance of these vehicles. This organization will be required to oversee the sustainable acquisition and implementation of the ADAV in the daily military operations as well as administrative monitoring to ensure effective maintenance is carried out through the vehicles life cycle.

The Land Engineering Agency (LEA) will offer any engineering assistance that the DMO may require, including services such as, and not limited to, maintenance, adjustments or modification in the design of the vehicles to overcome any challenges that may be brought about by the terrain the vehicle is intended to operate on.

1.3 Operation concept

The ADAV will require to be highly designed to tackle the special demands placed on it by the Australian army for use in rather rugged and hostile terrain. The vehicle will be deployable by any of the service air craft in use by the Australian Army. As a result, the ADAV can be deployed by various departments of the military, such as the Royal Australian Navy, Army or Air Force provided they have aircraft compatible with the vehicle and authorization to operate it. [ CITATION Men14 l 1033 ]. All these aircrafts should be under the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces.

During the process of deployment of the vessel, the aircraft would be required to place or lower the ADAV in a forward position to the water surface. Depending on the terrain, the ADAV may be pushed forward into the water by people, vessel or string attached to the aircraft deploying.

  1. Capabilities

The capabilities to be implemented in the proposed ADAV should be readily compatible and integrate into the current existing infrastructure within the defense organization [ CITATION Men14 l 1033 ]. This is so as to avoid any loss of information that may be crucial to the operation. The three main additional capabilities that the proposed design seeks to address in this paper are;

  • Material detection system

  • Mobile gun system

  • Defensive operation and mobility

The implementation these additional capabilities in the ADAV looks to provide the military with increased superiority to tackle challenges and threats.

    1. Material Detection Systems

The ADAV will be fitted with Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (abbreviated as CBRN) detection instruments. The integration of these instruments will enable efficient and rapid detection of any of these agents. This will come in handy when dealing with insecurity threats, such as explosive devices, as the vehicle can be used to detect these causative elements and determine the location of such threats in time to allow for the military to intervene and prevent loss of life or damage to property.

The vehicle can also be used to detect Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TIC), including their sampling and contaminated field marking. This will be advantageous in the event of chemical spills or nuclear meltdowns and there is need to identify the extent and intensity of contamination so as to prevent the public and the general environment from being exposed to potentially hazardous materials.

To facilitate the effective use of this capability, the vehicle will be required to be fitted with various elements, such as [ CITATION Fat01 l 1033 ];

  1. Trigger/ Cue – This is the first level of detection and determines any change in the particulate background at the sensor, indicating the presence of contaminants. When the trigger detects the presence of abnormal levels of contaminants, other components of the detection system are activated. The Trigger provides a means of continuous monitoring without unnecessarily using consumables, thus limiting the costs incurred.

  2. Collector – This samples the media in the area of interest for further analysis of the contaminants. Highly efficient collection devices, with capabilities for concentration, need to be employed as the effective doses for some agents may be extremely small.

  3. Detector – The sample is then analysed to determine whether it is chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear in nature. This step acts as the first analysis stage and sorts out materials of interest among the rest to be further analysed, thus saving on the analytical consumables. Newer technologies combine the detector and trigger elements into one, reducing the time required for sampling.

  4. Identifier – This is a device that specifically identifies the contaminants in the sample collected and their concentrations. Identifiers are normally preset to identify a specific set of contaminants and prior information on the contaminants expected should be provide to determine the best identifier to be installed.

In the case of the ADAV, all identifiers should be installed to a reasonable extent, as there is usually very little response time in the event of an emergency.

    1. Mobile Gun System

The ADAV will be required to be installed with a mobile gun system, usually in the form of a tank gun (rifled cannon) for use in the case of exchange of fire with armed assailants. It is important that the vehicle holds its own on the battle field before reinforcements arrive so as to prevent advance of the enemy. The efficiency and effectiveness of this mobile gun system is crucial and an underpinning factor on the safety and survival of the crew in the vehicle.

The mobile gun system can be analyzed in the categories of;

Firepower

The vehicle’s remote weapon station should be stabilized and auto-loading. Stability is important to ensure accuracy of the shooting and auto- loading, couple with the firing rate, allows the vehicle to engage various assailants at a go. The ammunition fitted into the vehicle depends on its capabilities and the enemies it is expected to encounter on the battlefield.

The rifled cannon installed in the vehicle should be able to take different types of ammunition for flexibility as specific ammunition may not be available during war. The ammunition should allow the ADAV to;

    1. Destroy light armored and thin skinned vehicles

    2. Provide anti- personnel fragmentation

    3. Create openings in walls for infantry access

The ADAV may perform some tank operations but is less likely to engage in combat with tanks. The advantage it has over tanks is that tanks are limited to which terrain they can comfortably engage in warfare.

Crew Amenities

Conditions inside the vehicle may become unbearable during war, especially when the duration is long and the battle field is in hostile terrain. The vehicle may thus, be fitted with air conditioning, or the crew provided with specialized cooling vests depending on availability of funds [ CITATION Cox08 l 1033 ]. Computers onboard the ADAV are also susceptible to overheating and appropriate cooling mechanisms should be installed to prevent damage, which could compromise the operations of the crew during an emergency.

Reasonable allowances should be provide for the crew to be able to make repairs to crucial parts of the ADAV damaged during battle, without having to disembark from the vehicle, such as the auto- loader. These allowances should not compromise other important aspects of the vehicle such as stability and maneuverability.

    1. Defensive Operation and Mobility

The purpose of defensive operations is to defeat enemy attacks. The ADAV should be able to effectively deflect the assailants’ blows and attacks in order to buy time, economize forces and develop favorable conditions to resume attacking operations. The vehicle should be able to withstand reasonable firepower as it awaits reinforcements or allow the joint force commander to build combat power.

The best defense is attack. Successful defenses are aggressive utilizing direct, indirect and air- delivered fires, information and ground maneuvers to attack and weaken the enemy. The vehicle should be able to optimize the use of firepower, protection and appropriate maneuverability to defeat the assailants.

Some of the fittings added to the vehicle for efficient defensive operations and mobility include [ CITATION Glo14 l 1033 ];

  1. Command and Control – The fusion of these departments allows for greater understanding of friendly and enemy positions and situations

  2. Satellite Connectivity – The crew in the ADAV will need to have access to intelligence collected through surveillance and reconnaissance about the forces on the battlefield so as to effectively plan their movement and defense. This information is fed from satellites overlooking their position.

  3. Long range weapons – The vehicle should be equipped with sufficient and effective long- range ammunition to engage the enemy at relatively safe distances where there can be little retaliation

  4. All Terrain Transport – The ADAV should be fitted for fast movement on all kinds of terrain. This mode of transport should be well protected from attack to maintain its mobility. The fast movement allows for surprise attacks or quick retreats, whenever necessary.

  1. Conclusion

The new ADAV will give its users an advanced chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear threat detection, mobile firepower as well as defensive operability and effective mobility. It seeks to address the main concerns raised by the Australian army and should be adopted to help satisfy the need for improved defensive capabilities. The implementation of the ADAV does not necessitate major changes in the army infrastructure and a pilot program to acquaint the personnel with its operations may be highly improbable. The vehicle provides a convenient, effective and relatively inexpensive solution to the challenges faced by the Australian Defense Forces.

  1. References

Cox, M., 2008. Mobile Gun System brings the heat in Iraq, Gannet : Government Media Corporation.

Fatah, D. A. A. et al., 2001. An Introduction to Biological Agent Detection Equipement for Emergency First Responders, Washington, DC: U.S Department of Justice.

GlobalSecurity.org, 2014. Defensive Operations. [Online]
Available at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-0/ch8.htm
[Accessed 2 April 2016].

Markowski, S., Hall, P. & Wylie, R., 2010. Defence Procurement and Industry Policy: A Small Country Perspective, London, UK: Routledge.

Menciassi, A. & Laschi, C., 2014. Bio-Robotics, Pisa, Italy: s.n.