Time Management and study at university

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Time Management for Study at University

Article 1

Integrating technology into student’s study environment has been a subject of concern since the 1950s, when issues of a large disquiet arise on whether students could complete their homework accurately and in time. Today, in light of the emergence of integrative mobile technologies that prevail, it is certain that the issue of whether students can effectively engage in media multitasking while accurately and effectively completing their homework is still a matter of concern. Indeed, the major concern is whether the students cannot disconnect from all forms of distractions when undertaking schoolwork outside the walls of the classroom. Calderwood et al. (2014) sought to establish that students cannot accurately account for the time they spend using the media. The amounts of work school-going children are to complete at home increases based on the higher the grade level they scale. This however changes when they get to college, as only 15 hours per week are spent in classroom and 30 hour in studying and doing homework outside the classroom. Increased use of multimedia and mobile devices has however increased the latency to waste time outside the classroom, where students are tempted to spend more time engaging in nonschool-related activities, or multitask. Why do students multitask? Aside from concentrating on the reports that have explored media multitasking, some researchers have centred on determining ways in which students multitask. Ultimately, multitasking has been linked to weakened performance in academic work. The primary reason why students multitask is because of their highly perceived cognitive needs that motivate them into the behaviours. The multitasking behaviours are however yet to be linked with task motivation for the college or university students. Based on this premise, Calderwood et al. (2014) sought to objectively determine the duration and frequency of students who undertake their schoolwork away from the confines of the classroom. Calderwood et al. (2014) noted that even when the students are separated from likely external distractions, such as the roommate of when subjected to laboratory environment, they still spend significant amount of time taking part in media multitasking.

Article 2

Students’ reluctance to finish allocated textbook readings in time in college has been a subject of concern, specifically among college professors. Lack of knowledge on the effective methods of study and lack of motivation among students have been cited as the prime causes of such tendency. Other reasons suggested include lack of consistent between the objective of the professors and that of the students. Starcher and Proffitt (2011) sought to determine the reasons why students fail to finish assigned readings due to underlying low student compliance, which has been noted to decline radically. Indeed, there have been concern that most college graduates who receive their bachelor’s degrees have low reading proficiency. Critically, lack of student motivation is largely blamed, where since most assigned reading tasks are time consuming, students are less motivated to commit time to finish the task. Among the reasons for this is that they perceive the opportunity cost for reading as rather high. Lack of correspondence or agreement between the objective of the professors and that of the students is also a key concern, where students may have the objective of passing exams in a particular course, while the professors may have the goal of improving the students’ reading proficiency. In such circumstance, the students may view that the goal may not be attained by reading the assigned reading text (Starcher and Proffitt (2011). To resolve the issues, Starcher and Proffitt (2011) suggest that reasons for lack of student preparation should be established, which they summarised as poor knowledge on proper study habits, poor student motivation, students’ need to compete with other students, the professors’ behaviour and lack of agreement in educator student objectives. Afterwards, the professor and the textbook should positively impact student motivation to finish the assigned task. For instance, a good textbook with sufficient graphics can be a major motivating factor. Students should also be allocated enough time before class and lastly, in-class activities should be incorporated to determine the level of student preparation.

Article 3

A significant rise in the number of students seeking enrolment in part-time postgraduate (TPg) awards has been recently noted. Ho et al. (2012) based their study on this realisation. The researchers investigated the reason why students seek to spend substantial amount of their tutorial fees in taking a TPg award. According to Ho et al. (2012), enrolling in part-time TPg award is a critical decision since the fees are significantly high, due to the fact that majority of the course function on self-financing basis. Additionally, many students who have already acquired enrolment in the award are forced to fix time. At the same time, they have to weigh between engaging in social activities or nonschool-related activities. Despite the tasking committal requirements of the awards, most students have selected to enrol for the TPg. One of the reasons is that TPg awards are attractive. Since the awards are substantially self-financed, they are market-driven. Therefore, to attract a significant enrolment, the curriculum is set to be friendly to the potential student needs. As a result, emphasis is on specialist knowledge. Ho et al. (2012) shows that TPg awards conform with a range of student needs, including developing students to be professionally competence, consistency with career changes, satisfaction of student’s self-interest, enhancing social and professional networks, and fulfilment need for the people to be perpetual students. Another reason is because of the technological and economic shifts that have contributed to part-time studying. The shift has made specialised study a necessity. Many students seek to give their careers a boost by undertaking further studies on part-time basis. Students are also more motivated to acquire the rewards at the expense of sacrificing their social commitments. Students also expect the curriculum to be relevant to their careers or work. This implies that students perceive TPg awards to be more practical in nature rather than theoretic.


Calderwood, C., Ackerman, P., Conklin, E. (2014). What else do college students “do” while studying? An investigation of multitasking. Compueters & Education 75, 19-29

Ho, A., Kember, D. & Hong, C. (2012). What motivates an ever increasing number of students to enroll in part-time taught postgraduate awards? Studies in Continuing Education 34(3), 319-338

Starcher, K. & Proffitt, D. (2011). Encouraging Students to Read: What Professors Are (and Aren’t) Doing About It. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 23(3), 393-407