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There are three questions which need to be answered pls dont exceed 2000 words for the three questions 2000 words in total Essay Example

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Differences between ethnographic and clinical approaches to drug use

Ethnography is the observation of understanding people from a different context by getting in to their situations and experiencing the pains they get. It’s feeling the taste of other people. It is the capacity to undergo the experiences of another devoid of being that other individual as (Sen 2007) defines. Ethnography needs spending a considerable amount of time immersed in one’s chosen field to document and create sense of a way of life often different to that person’s life. The purpose is to find out the common understandings, values as well as beliefs which enlighten character by observing and participating in a decided social context. Participant examination (the main means of getting ethnography) assists the examiner to take an active function inside the group and reduce disturbance to the normal flow of social life as (Moore 2011) furthet defines. (Eastland 2012) defines ethnography as the observation of the society by way of participation. The whole practice is described as a process where one observes, records and describes another person’s way of life in the course of intimate participation in the society studied.

In clinical studies, outcomes cannot address the whole countries drug using population with any accuracy as many people who use drugs are not known to the authorities or the surveyors involved in the activity. For those who participate in the clinical study very few persons will tell the truth of their drug behavior. Also the researchers may offer rewards for the participants which would compromise the whole study right from the beginning. Ethnography involves experiencing and recording without the influence of another person, it is an observation over a period of time.

As (Eastland 2012) continues to explain the whole process of understanding ethnographic approach to drug users, cultures sellers is slow and long yet the information collected is more dependable as the Ethnographer has taken part in the way of life, under assessment, without presenting gifts for information. The data they gather is in the course of participatory proceedings and observations. Unlike the clinical approach to drug use that is deductive and always tends to investigate phenomenon in terms of frequencies and trends, ethnography looks to establish the connotation of experience through explanation. It aims at developing concepts that help in understanding of natural connotation while emphasizing at the implication, the views and the experiences of those taking part or the participants.

Accordingly as (Al-Busaidi 2008) explains in ethnography the examiner studies the function and the structure of the people, the structure for example the kinship and the purpose of patterns of associations affecting as well as regulating the behaviour of the community. It gives a holistic approach of the culture of the community describing the social systems. This is not the case with clinical approach to drug use; few people are taken and do not involve studying of culture and beliefs.

Ethnography as (Vassar 2011) reports defines the problem of study when it is not clear yet. This is not the same with clinical approach to drug use where the problem is very clear and has already occurred. Clinical approach makes to treat and cure the problem while athnography seeks to prevent the problem (preventive). Ethnography also seeks to explore a problem which is complex unlike the clinical approach to drug which seeks to treat a problem that is at hand and not complex

Factors central to rise in drug related HIV infections in south East Asia

As (Coker 2011) explains the region is a bleeding place to active systems in which natural, ecological, technological, and social processes intersect in ways that enable microbes to use new environmental niches. This include the growth in population, movement, urbanization, food production changes, land use and agriculture, sanitation and water as well as the effects of the health systems trough the generation of drug resistance. This factors make infections of drug related HIV in south east Asia to increase considerably. The big population and urbanization is making the condition more epidemic. The production of drug resistance medicine to treat drug related HIV infections adds as a problem and rise of the infections. Infections occur through human to human contacts and poor hygienically conditions as well as water and poor sanitation.

Another factor is the management of infectious disease control which is demanding, with overlapping institutional functions and errands. South East Asia is also politically compound, with some international and internal tensions that have the probability to advance and hold back control as ( Varma 2010) explains.

Rapid increase in opium production in the Golden Triangle

(Chouvy 2006) defines opium as a type of pain reliever which is narcotic. It is obtained from unripe seeds of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Some farmers grow it as a cash crop to cope with the extreme shortage of staple crops in the golden triangle region. In 1961 the United Nations on narcotic drugs adopted a single convention and declared war on drugs. The golden triangle production of opium was favored by good weather in the region which made it possible for it to be grown in large scale. Topographical and the climatic conditions favored its production, demographic conditions provided labour. By 1991 Myanmar was the largest country in the golden triangle region to produce and export opium though in 1988 it attempted to reduce illicit production by striking illicit refineries and interdicting shipments of illicit drugs.

Opium production has been a way of life (culture) since the 1800s in the golden triangle representing an important income source for the impoverished tribes in the region as (Grittner, 2000) indicates. This advaced the people in the region to produce more as it was their way of life. They depended on it to get food and therefore produced more and more. Opium production was further acelerated by the political conflicts in the golden triangle. For example in burma armed conflict in opium trade allowed its production to be prolonged. In the golden triangle opium production has been vital to world politics and also geopolitics from 1950s to 1990s characterised by war and illicit production. This made it possible for maximum production in absence of government control and regulations. The cold war of 1972 as revieled by Alfred McCoy clearly helped illicit opium economies thrive in the golden triangle, covert operations and secret wars benefited in participation and financing of opium production and trade.


Al-Busaidi, Z 2008 sultan qaboos university medical journal Qualitative Research and its Uses in Health Care retrieved 5 27 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087733/.

Chouvy, P 2006 central Asia-caucasus institute & silk road studies program afghanistan’s Opium Production in Perspective Paris.

Eastland, K 2012 multiversic academian scholasticism SKPapers — Major differences between ethnographic and clinical approaches to drug use retrieved 5 27 2013 from: http://www.skpmas.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7:approach-drugs&catid=34:com-dev-gen&Itemid=7

Grittner, F 2000 study master golden trianglea as drug source retrieved 5 27 2013 from: http://www.enotes.com/golden-triangle-drug-source-reference/golden-triangle-drug-source.

Jay, K & Varma, K 2010, 10 emerging infectious diseases centers for disease control and prevention bloodstream infections among HIV-Infected Outpatients, Southeast Asia retrieved 5 27 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3294385/#__ffn_sectitle

Moore, D 2011 Curtin University Of Technology ethnography and illicit drug use: dispatches from an anthropologist in the field Perth.

Richard, J & Coker, B 2011 communicable diseases policy research group Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control Bangkok.

Sen, A 2007 Ethnography – definition, evolution & methods New Delhi.

Vassar, G 2011 journal of education evaluation for health professions An overview of ethnography in healthcare and medical education research retrieved 5 26 2013 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100516/