The situational environment(managing cross culture)
Тhе Situаtiоnаl Еnvirоnmеnt (Managing Сrоss Culture)
ТHЕ SITUАTIОNАL ЕNVIRОNMЕNT (MАNАGING СRОSS СULTURЕ)
Situational environment is the factors or influences that do not take place from within an individual, but from the environment or surrounding. In the context of Situation environment managers
face unique situations on a daily basis (Aarts, and Dijksterhuis, 2003). The cultural differences while managing across cultures may be as simple as working with people with diverse personalities. The biggest challenge is on understanding the particular situation in which managers are working and how the existing situation may vary from the preceding ones. In addition
managing across culture is a critical task and should be approached with increased attention. Culture has been defined as the acquired, ideas, values, and living styles shared by individuals inside the same social gathering. It is imperative to note that the primary cultural values transmission takes place through socialization, education, parenting and religion. There are also some secondary aspects that impacts behaviour such as difference in a system in the context of laws, accepted human resources practices, culture within an organization and codes of conduct (Adler, 1983). Culture is divided into numerous types, generic culture and local culture. In the case of non specific society, it is shared over all human living on the planet while in a local society it alludes to the images shared by a specific social gathering.
In today’s global environment, the technological advances and attainment have managed to bring people together. This implies that people with diverse cultural background and differences are communicating and working together. It is important to understand the situation in a working environment with respect to managing people across cultures. The fact here is that dealing with people from diverse culture calls for knowledge on cultural diversities. For instance, the manner in which we talk was aware of the cultural taboos having in mind that one aspect that is accepted in one culture might to be welcomed in another. Daily communication across cultures applies to communication within a workplace. Understating the citation environment in a workplace enables one to interact with people well and dealing with issues related to employees’ motivation, structuring and developing policies. Understanding the cultural diversities is mandatory in order to be able put the Afro mentioned issues into action in the work place (Adler, 1983). In most cases cultural norms are absorbed from natural surrounding from the parents and siblings. Therefore, through culture, people are able to function smoothly within a specified society or environment. Culture works in numerous environments or levels, national, organization, gender and no occupations. Understanding the situation environment in line with these levels facilitates a smooth management across cultures.
The significance of culturally diverse management depends on in the on-developing co-operation between organizations in different nations where challenges are likely to occur as a result of the diverse cultural backgrounds (Browaeys & Price, 2008).
Currently the world is experiencing increased globalization, which implies that many companies are being run in diverse places all over the globe. This will effect into increased activates around the globe lead into communication across cultures. Culture is learnt and this learning process requires communication in a manner that requires coding and decoding language symbols.
Communication and culture can be considered as inseparable viewpoints whereby as a supervisor in the event that one must be presented to a specific society. This brings about intellectual business communication that can be characterized as correspondence that happens organizations where there are workers from various social foundations (Adler, Doktor, and Redding, 1986). Therefore, noble information of intercultural correspondence and in addition global business correspondence is of noteworthiness in giving people the prospect to contend universally in the field of cross culture management.
In the field of international business, culture is treated as a success factor by managers regarding performance in the economic system. In the case of planning for overseas ventures, employers or companies seek to select employees with the highest ability to fit into novel societies. Introduction into a new cultural environment implies that one has to adapt to that situation environment and interrelate with persons from different nationalities, as culture is likely to become a decisive factor for business aspects (Søderberg, & Holden, 2002). This procedure involves synergy to flatten any form of disruption in management style in a working environment. From a situational environment point of view cross cultural management styles should be mainly based on situation awareness. That is, it is not something that one can learn overnight, however, being keen on the surroundings in a novel cultural setting will help managers to think ahead should there be sudden changes.
In management critical perspectives tries to study how, from a critical perspective standpoint management can look deeply political and distance from value free. Managers have been financial capital agents of exploration and representatives. Managers recently have been seen as ideological opponents of education arts and health professionals (Adekola, & Sergi, 2016). Therefore, any manager in the business environment holds responsibility to both the company shareholders and owners in profit maximization and a duty to manage employees’ performance. In the case of across culture management there are critical perspectives that are associated. These perspectives are based on the differences in the underlined points between
Asia and Western culture perspective.
Power equality and hierarchy
In a work place the power in cultures oriented to hierarchy the direction of the manager is oriented by the employees and the manager makes decisions and distributes the work among the employees. Inequality is a few societies is acknowledged and there are no endeavors rolled out to improvement the circumstance while in others it is considered as an undesirable viewpoint which requires change. Cultures that put emphasis on inequality do not stress on hierarchy, although it is crucial in facilitating relations within an organization. In such a case, administrators are included in the work instead of those individuals whose part is to direct and managers never take decisions on their own, but the decision making process is done at all employee levels. A reflection between west and east cultures on this issue is that the concept of hierarchy and equality in the western culture is taken more seriously and a leader is just among other people. That is he or she is not looked over and above the general public. However, in the eastern cultures the issue of hierarchy and equality has some weight where a leader assumes supreme status.
This is another critical issue when it comes to situational environment and managing across cultures. In every culture time is perceived differently through two types of time system. These include monochrome and polychromic (Beuk, et al, 2014). In situations where the monochrome time framework is taken after time is connected directly where one action is undertaken by people at a time in line with the pre-set schedule. In cultures where situations are based on polychromic time system more than one task is focused on and less is drawn towards information. This implies in these two situations, people focus on information in one case and take priority over schedules on the other case.
Perceptions over time orientation differ in cultures. This is an important aspect to put into consideration when it comes to management across cultures. There are cultures concerned with the past and values past traditions within their culture. In this case, the arrangements depend on whether they are in accordance with the customs and history of an organization. These sorts of societies are concerned with short term goals and gains.
In other cases, companies are focused on future gains were in cultures like these making decisions based on long term goals (Beuk, et al, 2014). Cultures in countries in the Middle East mainly remain sticked to the past. In another case cultures within US urban are oriented towards short term future benefits while the Latin America orientation is on both the past and present. Therefore, when managing across cultures being fully conversant with the situation environment of each and every culture remains crucial as one is able to make decisions that are favorable to a certain culture to avoid conflicts.
Literature in the relation to situation environment (Managing across culture)
There is a series of publication in regard to cross cultural management. There is a large amount of data in regard to this topic. It was notable that culture in some decades ago; it has been just a situational case whereby individuals were not able to understand one another within the domestic environments or either in teams. However, in today’s business environment development in international business is being experienced in the major scale and organizations are getting the need to go global.
As a result, numerous scholars have produced literature that points to numerous aspects that have endangered business. According to this literature, management, and communication style has played a part in this disruption (Triandis, 2006). Poor communication and application of poor management styles in cross cultural environments can result in failure of a business. Many others have dedicated their time to study this area and have positively confirmed that management styles that are used positively causes success in management and offer a better, adaptable and learning work environment. Therefore, it is clear that a management style that is inadequate can drive an opportunity into disaster. This makes it necessary to make cross comparisons between cultures as a way of observing probable differences within a cultural dimension.
Important situational environment aspects in pursuing a career as a manager across cultures
Multicultural managers stand a better chance to have a positive colossal effect to the accomplishment of world advancement procedures and ventures. The information on circumstance environment overseeing crosswise over society is that it demonstrates the remarkable components of multicultural personalities which empower them to embrace significant parts contrasted with monoculture managers. These roles include;
Through situational environment goal, task differences, roles, responsibilities, and locations are clearly presented. As a result, one is able to make possible and creative association and draw analogies among geographical markets. This allows a business to develop products that are sold world wide while it remains sensitive to local market diversities.
Interpretation of complex knowledge such as collective and dependent culture is also possible
Functionality of situational environment is inserted within organizational and national cultures; however, it has some unique challenges and characteristics. Having this in mind one can pursue a career as cross culture mange and end up being scusessful.one gets equipped with tools to deal with challenges such as
cross cultural conflict (Ang et al, 2007). This is al about being able to integrate teams members from diverse cultures to teams that develop own interrelation norms quickly and effectively.
Situational environment comprises of individual diversities, cognation differences and those based on contact between parties. Here as a across culture managers ability to be creative and share complex knowledge across cultures, contexts and manages world novel inventions is enhanced. Moreover, this precisely explains why multiculturalist in integrative roles of innovation fails to make such a positive difference. However, not every single multicultural manager is correspondingly talented at coordinating crosswise over societies at work.
Situational environment is important in that it highlights major mistakes that managers maker while operating in a cross culture environment. For instance, it states that managers in most cases fail to take note of their surroundings, or situations, especially when in the field and try in its place concentrate more on business which is unwise strategy(Ang et al, 2007).. Therefore, with a career in cross culture management it is all about being outgoing, friendly and confident offers route to a powerful multiculturalism. Along these lines an equalization of joining force between societies is additionally an essential condition for viable spanning. .
Lessons leant from situational environment
This topic is rich in knowledge on situational management across culture. It is clear that in a specific culture any individual or manager is required to adapt to different cultures in order to be successful. Situational environment and cultural knowledge increase the ability to exhibit a certain behavior, qualities and skills that are turned culturally into the values and attitudes of others. Knowledge gained from this area of study also assists in the linguistic intellect where uses of global business dialect can build viability when speaking with people of different societies (Earley, & Ang, 2003). Interpersonal intelligence is another very crucial lesson when it comes to the application of management across cultures in future. This enables potential managers in this area understand the capabilities and motivations of others. This implies that it becomes easy to deal with other people’s culture whereby one becomes aware of their knowledge and situation factors, the people get to know one society and how to put individual social conduct in accordance with that of another society.
The topic also makes it clear that in situational environment in every person there is what can be referred to as thinking and feeling patterns and which are directed towards a learning process all through a lifetime. Therefore the sources of a person’s mental program revolve around the environment and within the social environments that a person grew up in as well as assorted life experiences. The topic also makes it clear that culture is continuously a collective occurrence that is partly shared with people who live within the similar social environment and refers to it as a collective programming of the mind which differentiates members from one group from another.
In future through the knowledge from this topic manages will be able to pay increased attention to perpetual selection. This means that once they experience events for the first time in the external world they are able to choose what to expect and life the unexpected. It will be also possible to categorize novel experiences according to some relational comparative guidelines and finally, interpret the experience and align them with the best actions.
In conclusion, it is clear that there are existing cross cultural differences among diverse cultures. These differences have an impact on various aspects such as communication, management styles and worker interactions. There are many companies operational in diverse areas of the world and the management group mainly is from the mother company in most cases. In such a case people are exposed to diverse cultures that they need to absorb and get used to. Major cultural barriers occur in communication and affects effective communication. Although differences exist in cultures, people hold the aptitude to adapt to these differences. Having cultural intelligence is crucial because one is able to overcome the deterrents confronted due to social assorted qualities. In administration, it can be seen that there are numerous organizations are keep running outside their nations. For instance, Orange needs to adjust to new culture and hold the capacity to manage their representatives adequately in spite of them belonging to an alternative society. It is also clear those strategies in human resource management and organizational culture and enhances the willingness and ability of a multicultural manager to be effective. Therefore, it is a must to be acknowledged and trusted by companions and associates in worldwide groups, be that as it may, partners might be focus in on one of their societies and make the advancement, or upkeep, of adjusted coordination aptitudes harder and at the same time makes the roles of multicultural managers less effective. Many managers sometimes tend to ignore their surroundings when in the field and instead focus on more on business instead, but this can be a risky strategy.
Aarts, H. and Dijksterhuis, A., 2003. The silence of the library: environment, situational norm, and social behaviour. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), p.18.
Adekola, A. and Sergi, B.S., 2016. Global business management: A cross-cultural perspective. Routledge.
Adler, N.J., 1983. Cross-cultural management research: The ostrich and the trend. Academy of management Review, 8(2), pp.226-232.
Adler, N.J., Doktor, R. and Redding, S.G., 1986. From the Atlantic to the Pacific century: Cross-cultural management reviewed. Journal of Management, 12(2), pp.295-318.
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K.Y., Templer, K.J., Tay, C. and Chandrasekar, N.A., 2007. Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and organization review, 3(3), pp.335-371.
Beuk, F., Malter, A.J., Spanjol, J. and Cocco, J., 2014. Financial Incentives and Salesperson Time Orientation in New Product Launch: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), pp.647-663.
Browaeys, M.J. and Price, R., 2008. Understanding cross-cultural management. Pearson Education.
Earley, P.C. and Ang, S., 2003. Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press.
Søderberg, A.M. and Holden, N., 2002. Rethinking cross cultural management in a globalizing business world. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 2(1), pp.103-121.
Triandis, H.C., 2006. Cultural intelligence in organizations. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), pp.20-26.