THE NATIVE AUSTRALIANS 1

Treatment of Indigenous Australians

Contents

21.0 Introduction

22.0 Racism and Indigenous Australians

23.0 The Stolen Generation

24.0 Indigenous Criminology

35.0 Labor Market

36.0 Employment Programs

37.0 How Ethical Practice Engineers Impact on Indigenous Australian

48.0 Service to the Society

59.0 Communicating with Communities and Representatives as an Engineer

The Native Australians

1.0 Introduction

Research conducted by challenging racism project indicated that 30% of the Australians demonstrate high level of racism towards the Indigenous Australians (Australian Bureau Statistics, 2012). As such, the paper tends to examine and evaluate the contemporary issues and health-related ramifications that affected the indigenous Australians.

2.0 Racism and Indigenous Australians

Historically, the racism is most protracted among the indigenous people whereby majority of the Australian community identify the indigenous group as the outsider group in the Australian society. The first wave of racism was encountered 170 years back during the arrival of the First Fleet and the second wave was observed during the Australia pre-referendum era. During the pre-referendum era racism was either old or classic whereby they believe on superiority that was based on white color hence the indigenous Australians were treated as inferior human beings and not recognized in the Australian constitution. As such, the politically entrenched in Australia radicalized attitudes that led to the dispossession of the indigenous Australians from their native homeland. As such, the Indigenous Australians were prohibited from the land rights, loss of the culture spiritual values, encountered the disrupted law and the disconnection from the land, culture and the community at large. The policies formulated by the Australian state Government especially in Queensland, the radicalized law enacted treated the indigenous Australians like prisoners with little freedom of choice. The indigenous worked without payments and forbidden from participating in cultural practices.

3.0 The Stolen Generation

The indigenous Australians especially the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders faced negative consequences. Children were removed from the indigenous Australian families or displaced from their family purposefully for missions, reserves or other institutions. The practice portrayed the alienation pattern and the aspect of proving the colonial identity. Additionally, taking the indigenous children away from the family was to civilize the children whereby they were educated to work in work society as menials. The approach showcased how the Australian indigenous is oppressed.

4.0 Indigenous Criminology

Based on the research conducted by varied scholars, the native Australians were disadvantage in almost all criminal justice procedures in Australia police institutions. The incarceration rates indicated that the Indigenous Australian people are arrest more often through illegal procedures are most likely to be charged with issues regarding good conduct, breaching of laws and regulations hence vastly over-represented in prisons. As such, the outcome indicates the inappropriateness of the criminal justice systems in Australia. The police power is viewed to be the major determinant of the Indigenous people in the custody. As such, the police power entails the person to be detained or arrested and what charges are pressed on them. Additionally, the police took advantage of the indigenous people in Australia and exert tremendous powers regarding the issues on control of culture which is not easily understood by the Australian indigenous people. Such people continued to be oppressed in Australian country. Based on research, inequality and the discrimination of indigenous people in Australia are widely apparent in the country especially on the relationship between the criminal justice system and the indigenous Australian people (Blagg, 2013). It therefore indicated that the Indigenous group were humiliated, intimidation by the armed forces and continual repression from their native land.

5.0 Labor Market

Through colonization, the introduction of the farming and clearing of land impacted the indigenous group in Australia by reducing resources the supported the traditional lifestyle of the indigenous people in the country. The outcome spearheads the Indigenous in society to be a source of cheap labor or to be savages due to limited resource available (Hunter, 2013)

6.0 Employment Programs

Historically, various institutions have excluded many indigenous people from the full economic participation in Australia State. In the twentieth century, the indigenous Australian habitants never accessed the social security payments or the welfare services (Miller, 2012). Additionally, the indigenous Australian people were not entitled to the benefits of the provisions of work test and the eligibility to occupy and stay in the government mission houses as homes. As such, the group experienced massive economic and cultural dislocation that has been trending from one generation to the other generation among the indigenous Australian people. In comparison to the non-indigenous Australian people, the indigenous Australian people had lower labor force rates participation, records showing higher incidence of unemployment and longer durations of unemployment in labor market and if employed, the Indigenous group tend to earn lower average incomes from the Government (Dockery, 2014). Additionally, the employment opportunities were only available from the Government funding while the private industry rejected the group application.

7.0 How Ethical Practice Engineers Impact on Indigenous Australian

7.1 Constitution

Based on the historical analysis of the Indigenous Australian, it has impacted on the formulation and implementation of the constitutions across continents. The constitutions advocate for the protection of rights to maintain all the indigenous identities and to participate equally through collectives in the society. For the realization of such a practice, the approach requires creating and sharing knowledge that authentically defines an individual as an integral to the survival of the people identity.

7.2 Culture Competence

The history of indigenous Australians impacts the ethical engineering towards the culture competence. Culture competence would foster constructive interactions between the indigenous Australians and Australians as members of different cultures. As such, cultural competence enables individuals to become culturally aware, gaining the cultural knowledge and achieving greater cultural skills hence easier to assimilate such gained skills across the country and continent at large (Diller, 2015). Additionally, the technique diminishes the individual ethnocentric attitudes regarding other culture perceptions and spearheads more open behavior from people, the capabilities of being flexibility and non-judgmental perceptions.

8.0 Service to the Society

As per the history, the ethics impacts on the engineering committed to serving the society ethically. As such, the approach needs to observe the welfare of the society and the determinants of the progress of the majority. The history advocates for the ethics in engineering to transform the nature for the benefit of the mankind in the society, increases the awareness of the existing world and make the world to be a happier and fair society (Ward, 2014). Additionally, the history impacts the engineering to reject any approach that intends to harm the general interest of the society to the rights of human beings, threatening the life of human beings or the results threaten the existing environment occupied by the human beings. The history finding indicates that through engineering the ethics is observed through justice, honesty, modesty and having the consciousness of the individual well-being equally in all differed cultures.

The global leaders are expected to carry out the assigned duties efficiently and work while observing the state rules and regulations as per the implemented laws. Indigenous history impacts the importance of engineering the dissemination of knowledge ethically across the society, individuals sharing the gathered experiences in different environs, provision of education opportunities and trainings within the society, moral and the material support in the current communities (Graeme, 2012). Commitment of ones self to the highest level of the standards especially on the individual contact greatly measures the ethics values gathered from the natives of the Australian continent. Responsible leadership and being informative can be gathered from the historical experiences of the indigenous Australians (Janet, 2013). Responsible leadership manages the team well by listening through individuals different opinions and sign new laws that are reached through democratic consensus. As such is observed. Being informative distribute new ideas hence a learning process that tends to favor the society at large.

Adapting and modifications of programs to best suit the culture of the society is an ethic approach. The programs needs to meet the needs of the society people equally and democratic without going against norms of majority of society people. The approach is likely to motivate the society people to be unified and gave a common agenda towards the realization of the country goals. Intimidation and discrimination is not likely to arise when search an approach is applicable in the society.

9.0 Communicating with Communities and Representatives as an Engineer

Through history and ethics, the findings influences me to have the capacity of sharing and be informative to the society about the world and the understanding of our peoples lives through the use of varied objects and other information. As an engineer, implementation of any paper work or the project, observing the different cultures within the society is essential before implementing something new. As such, it wise to communicate about the benefits and the consequences that is likely to arise in the society as per the implementation of something new. The information that I will deliver needs to be fair and generally equal to all humankind in the society.

Equipping the society with the information of having long-term sustainable operations is of the importance. As such, the communication approach is easily achieved through offering skills training, the availability of the resources and knowledge that are essential for balancing experiences in the society irrespective of the individual racial differences and cultures that exist in the society. Fulfilling individual aspirations in society is also essential. The only way to realize person’s aspirations is through effective communication. Through communication, offering assistive guidance is simpler and quicker hence the possibilities of all majorities of the people in the society work towards their dreams while some achieve them (Murphy, 2014)

References

Australian Bureau Statistics. (2012). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

Blagg, H. (2013). System Racism as a Factor in the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal People in the Victorian Criminal Justice System. Report to the Equal Opportunity Commission and Aboriginal Justice Forum. Melbourne: Victorian Government.

Diller, J. (2015). Cultural Diversity: A Primer for Human Services ( 2nd Ed). Brooks/Cole, Canada.

Dockery, M. (2014). Long Term Employment and Work Deprived Individuals: Issues and Policies, Australian Journal of Labor Economics, Vol.5, No.2, p. 175.

Graeme, G. (2012). Ethical Research in Indigenous Australian Contexts and its Practical Implementation. ECU Publications.

Hunter, B. (2013). Labor Market Programs and Indigenous Australians, Center for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research Report to the Department of Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business, Canberra.

Janet, H. (2013). Engaging with Indigenous Australians-Exploring the Conditions for Effective Relationships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. Australian Government.

Murphy, C. (2013). Engineering Ethics for a Globalized World. Springer.

Miller, M. (2012). Report of the Committee review of Aboriginal Employment and Training Programs. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Ward, J. (2014). Aboriginal Health. Why Reconciliation is Necessary. Med J Aust p. 155