The city Essay Example

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25/05/ 2011

Planning of the Makkah city from architect and business perspective

Makkah was the birthplace of the prophet Mohammed and is the home of the Kaaba, a small cube-shaped building enclosed within a mosque that is revered as the holiest site in Islam (Timothy, 2009). In the year 630, Mohammed conquered Makkah and declared the Kaaba as the center of Islam, requiring that the faithful make a pilgrimage (the Hajj) to the site at least once in their lifetime. Because of its sacredness, Makkah became, and remains, a «forbidden city» — off limits to non-Muslims (Timothy, 2009).

The city of Makkah hosts more than three million people every year who perform Hajj (Islamic pilgrimage). Makkah city is therefore an important religious and cultural centre. The city has been a centre of beehive actives since time in memorial. In the recent decade the city has experience tremendous and rapid development. Many historical building which date back to 19century have since been destroyed to make room for modern development. The success of Makkah city in term of architects and planning lie on the documentation of historical building and preserved information for future generation. Makkah city has not lost its rich artifacts and history like many other cities. The makkah city Architects presents interaction between different culture throughout history such as social value, economic situation, political planning and behaviour of particular time.

Makkah city planning integrates the land use planning and transportation planning to improve building, social environment of communities and economic. The comprehensive master plan of the Holy city Makkah was developed by Motiyama and Teshima. The comprehensive master plan takes into consideration religious issues and complex environmental while ensuring quality urban design. The comprehensive master plan lay down strategic vision and outline key master plan components upon which the city growth and mapping system of location is intensifies. The comprehensive master plan for Makkah city address issues that relate to strategic vision, goals and regulatory, land use, policies, housing, natural and culture resources, economic development, service facilities, circulation and transportation, open space dedication and implementation. The comprehensive master plan host both Architectural and Urban design guidelines for the Makkah city. It is the great hope of Moriyama and Teshima that the comprehensive master will preserve and enhance the natural and cultural resource of the Muslim faith to its succeeding generation. It is envisaged by Moriyama & Teshima, in this Master Plan, that the growth of this region will respect the balanced connections between place, built form, and natural topography that have rendered this setting unique (Timothy, 2009).

The detail needs of Makkah city can be seen through Makkah planning presentation transcript. The city is governed by mayor (Amir) who is appointed by Saudi government. The city host population of 1,700,000 –density 4,200/km square (2,625/sq mi)- urban 2,053,912- metro 2,500,000 (2009 estimate). The management of the city are facing huge challenges in offering adequate services to such outgrowth population. The challenges are magnified during Hajj moment (4 million pilgrims). The city also host major industries Hajj ($100 million) which is different with Saudi Major Industries which export oil. The huge challenges that face the industry which are service oriented are scarcity of water, pollution and transport facilities. There is no major public transport, private and taxi. There is also no major airport that adequately serves the city. The increasing number of pilgrim in the recent has let to expanding of holy mosque and has also necessitated the increase of the residential facilities in the city. This is a substantive challenge which has not been overcome over many decades. Another huge challenge that has always stood on the face of the management of the city is the requirement that accompany the enlargement of mosque. The immediate building that surround the Mosque and other structure need to be removed to create more room. The exercise has never been easy due to legal aspect that surrounds it.

Despite the existence of comprehensive master plan for the city, there have been a substantive land issues and planning issue that management of city have encounter. There have been a low Low Efficiency of New Residential Layouts and The Availability, and Quality or Residential “ Barha ” The Threat of Sacred Place; New Construction of Modern Residential and Commercial Development is Causing The Destruction of Historic Islamic Buildings and is Commercializing (Timothy, 2009).

The city

The Great Mosque, Makkah, Mecca


Dallen J. Timothy, (2009). Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world: a regional perspective. Taylor & Francis.

AbulHasan Muhammad Sadeq, (1999). Contributions to Islamic knowledge: abstracts of dissertations and theses on Islamic subjects. Vikas Pub. House.