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The australian aged care policy ou are required to analyse the process of health care policy development with reference to ONE policy or one component of a policy within the Australian health care system Essay Example

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Table of Contents

The Process of Health Care Policy Development with reference to Aged Care Policy 3

1.0 Introduction 3

2.0.0 Policy Analysis 4

2.1.0 Framework 4

42.1.1 Cost benefit

42.1.2 Cost-effectiveness

52.1.3 Market Competitiveness

62.1.4 Regulatory Impact

2.2.0 Social 6

62.2.1 Community Impact

72.2.2 Interest Group Impact

72.2.3 Community Values

82.2.4 Social Justice Principle

82.2.5 Cultural Heritage Impact

2.3.0 Environmental 8

82.3.1 Environmental impact analysis

92.3.2 Environmental Quality

92.3.3 Biodiversity

92.3.4 Habitat Preservation

2.4.0 Political 10

102.4.1 Consistency with governing party principles and policies

102.4.2 Agreement among policy elites

2.5.0 Legal 11

112.5.1 Administrative and Constitution Framework

112.5.2 Institution Structures and Relationship

122.5.3 Accountability

3.0 Conclusion 12

4.0 References 14

The Process of Health Care Policy Development with reference to Aged Care Policy

1.0 Introduction

Australian aged care policy put emphasis on healthy ageing, and although death in the aged care environment is a common happening, least policy subsists to strengthen activities that surround death in this milieu (Cotter et al., 2012).The Australian aged care policy place considerable significance on aged people having easy access to cost effective as well as high quality aged care services, and this is echoed in present regulatory as well as institutional arrangements, which offer substantial weight to accomplishing even-handedness of access in addition to a minimum adequate service quality standard. The reason for choosing this policy is for the reason that when most people grow old as observed within the neighboured they are left without care by their own families, and so this policy plays a crucial role in the life of the elderly people. Besides that the policy has interested me because when I grow old I will desire as well to be in a position to access satisfactory care in my home.  Aged care system in Australia has changed in an impromptu manner in reaction to: the changing as well as increasing demands and needs of older individuals; political compromises; risk management failures; in addition to interest of sustainably containing the expenditure of the public (Prosser et al., 2013). The article seeks to analyse the process of health care policy development with reference to aged care policy.

2.0.0 Policy Analysis

2.1.0 Framework

2.1.1 Cost benefit

, the bonds are invested by residential aged care facilities owners and afterwards use the retention and return amount to finance capital costs related with housing residents. Furthermore, the bonds are usually financed through the money received by selling the care recipient’s house. Hannon (2011) are barely accessible for Low Level Care (previously recognized as hostels), or places of Extra Service which, as defined by the name provides services akin to hotel in nursing home or high-level care places. According to Gargett (2010)he community and residential aged care in Australia has been subsidized to largely by the government, with care recipients contributing through day after day charges, which are deducted from their Means Testing and/or pension. Living as well as accommodation costs can as well be covered by means of accommodation bonds, which according to Besides that, t. as well as services, food standard a higher accommodationprovide the care recipients with aged care homes can a number of cost, additional. For an (Stafrace & Lilly, 2008), or the income-tested chargeaccommodation charge, the , accommodation bondexpenses
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look for assistance may this form of financialapplicants for In this regard, a. costs aged care related vital for aid financial hardship always provideDepartment of Social Services Australia’s

2.1.2 Cost-effectiveness

argue that Australians are unaware whether the aged care quality is excellent, appalling or uncaring and if they are receiving money value in aged care. Shaw et al. (2011) . Considering the meagreness of the formal aged care standards and the manner in which compliance with them is examined, (Gargett, 2010) have examined the funding issue without cost-and-quality benchmarks, presuming that at present the aged care quality is satisfactoryTooth et al. (2012). A number of reviews as well as formal inquiries have concentrated on this issue, and such reviews and inquiries as per (Avkiran & Mccrystal, 2014). The industry for aged care has for years been claiming that it is financial support for both high-care nursing homes and hostels must considerably be heightenedespousedperspective are horizon
and societallong-standing when a ), especiallyprotocolstraditional , or option prevention optimal subsequent treatment, the proportionate either to to be cost-effective (established were spectrumacross the prevention Hillen et al. (2011)by reviewed aged-care services the Scores of

2.1.3 Market Competitiveness

. (Cotter, et al., 2012) care marketaged competitive justly a guarantee anti-trust laws to relevantof implementation the as well asrisk adjustment, for certificate-of-need laws, taxes, mechanismsrelating to reforms formulate certain to In this regard, policymakers will have. (Codde, et al., 2010) that is consumer-driven improve in a marketconsiderablymay aged care that is well managed , years over the past several setbacks with loaded Even though quality. enhancing as well as integrated whilst more cost-effective turn out to becare to aged allow toward a value-based payment system can shifting, Moreover. (Fleming & FitzGerald, 2009) care needsagedtheir as well as cost-conscious with regard to
cautious more aged patients that can make an enormous alternative can be orientedconsumer-that are , health plans Stafrace and Lilly (2008)suggested by , as In addition other industries. scores of akin to, prices to health caresusceptible
extremelypatients can be Undoubtedly, aged

2.1.4 Regulatory Impact

In Australia, the Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency Ltd (ACSAA) is liable for accrediting community as well as residential aged care providers in addition for supervising their observance with standards for aged care (Stafrace & Lilly, 2008). The ACSAA’s Board of Directors included individuals with skill in aged care, together with employees recruited by aged care providers. Besides that, nursing homes in Australia function within the compliance as well as accreditation monitoring system. Monitoring compliance appears to concentrate much on nursing homes having both operational as well as administrative systems ready to deliver aged care of high quality (Codde et al., 2010). Furthermore, aged care providers can recommend a certain auditor to carry out the full audit, and the systems subsistence is typically confirmed by exhibiting documentation of aged care auditors, which according to Howe (2008) can be altered so as to attain accreditation. In this regard, where systems are implemented and where no proof subsists that systems are non-functional, the nursing home looking for accreditation will get a tick (Brodaty & Cumming, 2010).

2.2.0 Social

2.2.1 Community Impact

In Australia, older people get support as well as care from informal carers, directly services from market suppliers ranging from private nursing to home maintenance, and from publicly subsidized formal residential as well as community care services. According to Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), in spite of a common fairy tale that the majority of older individuals reside in cared accommodation, almost 92 percent of older Australians stay in private homes as family members or lone-entity households (Tooth et al., 2012). AIHW further notes that merely 8 percent are normal residents in non-private homes, which consist of guest houses, motels, hotels as well as cared accommodation like aged care homes, infirmaries and supported dwellings provided by a number of retirement villages. Even though the percentage of older people staying in non-private dwellings heightens with age, the majority of aged persons stay in private homes (Perry et al., 2011). The older people care needs may differ noticeably and they might require intensive periods of rehabilitation or restorative care to help them to get back their freedom.

2.2.2 Interest Group Impact

The aged care political setting, including both the balance of interest groups and governing political party, has been paramount in shaping Australian aged care policy development. According to Cusack et al. (2011), interests groups have been lobbying for the aged persons to be offered the chance to benefit from both public and private insurance. An optional view backed by the National and Liberal (or conservative) Parties as well as interest groups, is that private health insurance is an vital aspect of a unbiased system consisting of both privately and publicly funded and offered aged care.

2.2.3 Community Values

Basically, there are a range of setbacks with looking for community preferences to manage aged care: the hardship in determining well-versed choice, the duration needed to achieve consensus, the pressure groups tendency as well as concerned parties to prevail over the unvoiced majority and the like. Jeon et al. (2010) posit that there are issues of wider principle (like fairness) that do appear to be well managed in aged care, since they are always referred to community values; however, how well to bring out these values remain contentious and needs more research.

2.2.4 Social Justice Principle

Primarily, the social justice principles; supportive environments, diversity as well as equity are a fundamental part of effective promotion of aged care. The Australian government promotes social justice as it is intended to offer access to aged care opportunities for every aged member of in the community and aspires to decrease the health inequalities level in Australia. Social justice as per Prosser et al. (2013) denotes that the aged people’s right in the community are well thought-out in an equitable and fair manner. While equal opportunity targets all and sundry within the Australian community, social justice on its part, targets the disadvantaged as well as marginalized groups of aged persons in the community.

2.2.5 Cultural Heritage Impact

The cultural impact as a contributory influence on the behaviours, interpretations as well as perceptions of aged persons in certain cultural groups is imperative. Issues like cultural disparities in describing aged care as well as in treatment designs are as well vital. Given that knowledge of certain culture can be achieved, Ergas (2012) posits that cross cultural contrast can also result in acknowledgment of potential universal features. Therefore aged care must take into account the cultural heritage of the care recipients so as to avoid violating those people’s cultural beliefs.

2.3.0 Environmental

2.3.1 Environmental impact analysis

Firm investments in environmental protection as well as public health have external advantages in terms of reduced aged-care expenditures. Integrated with the other benefits, Smith and Stevens (2013) assert that environmental protection investments without a doubt yield a lot of benefits to the society. Therefore, aged care policy does not exclude environmental quality consideration since any possible exclusion will ultimately lead to heightened expenditures. Codde et al. (2010) study results advocates a need to expand the cost suppression debate to make sure health environmental determinants get notice as possible balance to traditional policies of cost control.

2.3.2 Environmental Quality

Polluted environments heighten the transmission risk of aged care related infections. Suitable prevention practices for the environmental infection are imperative to maintaining a secure setting of care for both providers and care recipients.

2.3.3 Biodiversity

There is heightening concern concerning the health impact of biodiversity change as well as loss. Biodiversity changes according to Fleming and FitzGerald (2009) have an effect on bionetwork performance as well as considerable disturbances of environments can lead to life sustaining ecosystem services in addition to goods. Biodiversity loss as well indicates that we are losing, prior to innovation, scores of nature’s genes and chemicals, have already offered humankind with vast health benefits.

2.3.4 Habitat Preservation

Climate as well as weather plays a crucial part in aged people’s health; therefore, climatic changes have an effect on the average weather state of affairs that older people are used to. Warmer temperatures will probably result to longer and frequent heat waves as well as hotter days. This as a result, might heighten the number of heat-correlated deaths and illnesses. The severity and frequency increases of severe weather occasions like storms might heighten the risk of treacherous flooding, as well as other direct risks to aged people together with their property.

2.4.0 Political

2.4.1 Consistency with governing party principles and policies

In spite of frequent media reports that highlight the failure several health care policies, Australia according to Karmel et al. (2009) has an excellent aged care system (McVey et al., 2014). Policymakers, Politicians, as well as the community are time and again incarcerated by the health ‘setback presented by its supporters. Australian politicians as well as policy makers have been advised to put front the needs of aged Australians and centre as they make reforms to the health care polices and principles, with aged care proponents asking the current government to embrace additional reforms. The government campaigning of the aged care sector started to surface during the election period, and the Opposition has principally supported the changes (Teshuva & Wells, 2014).

2.4.2 Agreement among policy elites

Policy elites have agreed that residential care to be offered to the aged persons when their care needs (social, psychological, medical and/or physical) surpass the community care ability. Such needs may be caused by different factors, which included unsuitable living arrangements, an episode of acute health, or an insufficient informal carer support (Jowsey et al., 2013). A number of facilities specialise in offering support as well as care for older people who are homeless as well as affected by alcohol and drug. Besides that, low level residential care offers housing as well as associated day after day living support (such as cleaning, laundry, and meals), in addition to a number of Personal Care Services (PCS) (Karmel et al., 2009). PCS according to Nepal et al. (2011) can entail help with managing incontinence, mobility, eating, toileting, support for community rehabilitation, and help in receiving health as well as therapy services. High level care on its part covers extra services like palliative care, nursing care, therapy services, medical management and devices to aid with mobility.

2.5.0 Legal

2.5.1 Administrative and Constitution Framework

In Australia, there are three community care packages namely; Community Aged Care Packages (CACPs), Extended Aged Care at Home (EACH) and Extended Aged Care at Home Dementia Packages (EACH-D). All of community care packages are intended for aged persons who are entitled for residential care, but instead they opt to stay in the community as well as are securely able to do so with the family support (Stephens et al., 2011). On the other hand, home and community care (HACC) programs is definitely the biggest as well as the most wide-ranging support program for aged persons in Australia. Howe (2008) asserts that HACC plays a crucial role in helping aged persons to continue living by themselves in their own house and still remain to be part of their community.

2.5.2 Institution Structures and Relationship

According to aged care policy, informal support is can be in form of emotional support, cognitive tasks, mobility, communication, as well as paperwork. Besides that, informal carers play a crucial part in the facilitation as well as coordination of formal services for community care. Based on Survey of Disability Ageing and Carers, which was carried out by Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2009, it was established that there existed over 352000 primary carers for persons aged 65 and above (Jorm et al., 2010). Besides that, in 2010, Access Economics estimated that in case the informal care offered by voluntary family carers to every needy aged person, were substituted by formal care, which is paid for its services the cost might be more than $40 billion yearly (Nepal et al., 2011). Both the federal as well as state governments’ offer numerous subsidised formal aged care services, and they consist of the residential aged care, community care packages, as well as HACC program.

2.5.3 Accountability

Without doubt regulation of community care packages as well as residential care facilities is both wide-ranging in range and demanding in its level of in depth recommendation. The regulation according to aged care policy limits the number of accessible bed licences for residential care as well as community care packages, and outlines the amount that care recipients’ must pay to the care providers (Jeon et al., 2010). The regulation as well includes consumer protection together with quality assurance measures, like: ACSAA; Aged Care Commissioner; prudential regulation with regard to accommodation bonds; Complaints Investigation Scheme (CIS); and the Office of Aged Care Quality and Compliance (OACQC) (Smith & Stevens, 2013).

3.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be recommended that whilst there are scores of practical setbacks related with equity in aged care funding, the government should essentially stop coercing older people with no other crucial assets to sell their home to pay for community or residential aged care. Obviously, their home is all they possess and also it is an asset they have worked hard and long to acquire it. Therefore, they should have the right to be in charge of their house ownership for as many years as they need or want to for the benefit of their dependants. Besides that, nursing homes’ accreditation as well as compliance monitoring of their performance have to concentrate on results: to be exact the health as well as wellness of residents instead of on processes like operational together with administrative systems. Furthermore, aged care services’ audits must be performed by assessors who are selected at random and the power of aged care providers to recommend an auditor must be banned. State-of-the-art information concerning charges and fees of nursing homes and concerning accommodation bonds must be publicised. Lastly, the subsidies offered to the aged care providers by the government must be acquitted against authentic spending and this information must be published publicly for all and sundry to view.

4.0 References

Avkiran, N. K., & Mccrystal, A. (2014). Intertemporal analysis of organizational productivity in residential aged care networks: scenario analyses for setting policy targets. Health Care Management Science, 17(2), 113-125.

Brodaty, H., & Cumming, A. (2010). Dementia services in Australia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25(9), 887-897.

Codde, J., Arendts, G., Frankel, J., Ivey, M., Reibel, T., & al, e. (2010). Transfers from residential aged care facilities to the emergency department are reduced through improved primary care services: An intervention study. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 29(4), 150-154.

Cotter, P. R., Condon, J. R., Barnes, T. M., Anderson, I. P., Smith, L. R., & al, e. (2012). Do Indigenous Australians age prematurely? The implications of life expectancy and health conditions of older Indigenous people for health and aged care policy. Australian Health Review, 36(1), 68-74.

Cusack, L., Siegloff, L., Arbon, P., Hutton, A., & Mayner, L. (2011). (A196) Tension between Emergency Management Policy Decisions and Aged Care Facilities in Australia: A Case Study. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 26(S1), s67-s68.

Ergas, H. (2012). Funding and Providing Aged Care: Lessons from the Last Decade. The Australian Economic Review, 45(3), 362-375.

Fleming, R., & FitzGerald, D. (2009). Large-scale training in the essentials of dementia care in Australia: Dementia Care Skills for Aged Care Workers project. International Psychogeriatrics, suppl. International perspectives on dementia education, training, 21(S1), S53-S57.

Gargett, S. (2010). The introduction of a targeted user-pays approach to funding high-level residential aged care in Australia: an empirical investigation of the impact on price. Health Economics, Policy and Law, 5(4), 481-508.

Hannon, K. (2011). Aged care complaints focus on drug misuse: [1 STATE Edition]. The Advertiser , 11.

Hillen, J. B., Reed, R. L., Woodman, R. J., Law, D., Hakendorf, P. H., & al., e. (2011). Hospital admissions from residential aged care facilities to a major public hospital in South Australia (1999-2005). Australasian Journal on Ageing, 30(4), 202-207.

Howe, A. L. (2008). Is bigger better when it comes to defining target populations for aged care programs? Australasian Journal on Ageing, 27(1), 14-19.

Jeon, Y.-H., Glasgow, N. J., Merlyn, T., & Sansoni, E. (2010). Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 190-194.

Jorm, L. R., Walter, S. R., Lujic, S., Byles, J. E., & Kendig, H. L. (2010). Home and community care services: a major opportunity for preventive health care. BMC Geriatrics, 10, 26-2.

Jowsey, T., McRae, I., Gillespie, J., Banfield, M., & Yen, L. (2013). Time to care? Health of informal older carers and time spent on health related activities: an Australian survey. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 374-389.

Karmel, R., Gibson, D., Lloyd, J., & Anderson, P. (2009). Transitions from hospital to residential aged care in Australia. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 28(4), 198-205.

McVey, P., McKenzie, H., & White, K. (2014). A community-of-care: the integration of a palliative approach within residential aged care facilities in Australia. Health & Social Care in the Community, 22(2), 197-209.

Nepal, B., Brown, L., Ranmuthugala, G., & Percival, R. (2011). A Comparison of the Lifetime Economic Prospects of Women Informal Carers and Non-carers, Australia, 2007. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 46(1), 91-108,3-4.

Perry, L., Bellchambers, H., Howie, A., Moxey, A., Parkinson, L., & al, e. (2011). Examination of the utility of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework for implementation of evidence based practice in residential aged care settings. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(10), 2139-2175.

Prosser, B., Clark, S., Davey, R., & Parker, R. (2013). Developing a public health policy-research nexus: An evaluation of Nurse Practitioner models in aged care. Evaluation and Program Planning, 40(1), 55–63.

Shaw, R., Greig, J., Bone, Z., & Morrison, M. (2011). Mapping the funding and communication practices of aged care services in a regional Australian community. Rural Society, 21(1), 74-80.

Smith, S., & Stevens, S. C. (2013). Aged care system workforce: Training quality in NSW. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 32(4), 233-235.

Stafrace, S., & Lilly, A. (2008). Turnaround in an aged persons’ mental health service in crisis: a case study of organisational renewal. Australian Health Review, 32(3), 577-582.

Stephens, D., Wells, Y., & Gardner, I. (2011). Approving for a Community Aged Care Package: Experiences and perceptions of six metropolitan aged care assessment service teams. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 30(2), 77-81.

Teshuva, K., & Wells, Y. (2014). Experiences of ageing and aged care in Australia of older survivors of genocide. Ageing and Society, 34(3), 518-537.

Tooth, L. R., Hockey, R., Treloar, S., McClintock, C., & Dobson, A. (2012). Does Government subsidy for costs of medical and pharmaceutical services result in higher service utilization by older widowed women in Australia? BMC Health Services Research, 12, 179-201.