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(Fernández-Armesto), p.3

These are the words that Fernández-Armesto opens his chapter with and appear to be more inclined to the human evolution perspectives. He highlights that the evolution is not definite, and it is impossible to find the actual transforming moment that the humankind is stipulated to have started. So, what does the word human means to this context as Fernández-Armesto insinuates it? To most of the people we may tend to think that for you to be human or Homo habilis as it is meant in the chapter, one has to be bipedal, be able to use the tools, and at least have some faith and exercise religion and cultural activities. It is real that all these traits were subjected to evolution like everything else was in our modern world. For instance, if we trace back to the past 2.5 million years, Homo habilis was cited to have used the first tool in the universe. The Homo habilis was succeeded by Homo ergaster, who are remembered to be the religion and culture initiators. Therefore, it remains unanswered when we became bipedal.

Fernández-Armesto establishes the hypothesis that we are all the first descendants of Eve, who is termed as the mother of the East Africa. Now this hypothesis is clouded with numerous questions that remain unanswered. If it is true that we originated from East Africa, how did we happen to re-distributed globally to inhabit almost the whole world? The human mobility could only be traced through the investigations of the genetic order, the various language patterns, the blood types, and the population by using the demographic approach to the early history. When the discussion about migration ensues, it is imperative we keep in mind that the current tools that exist were not there at those ages. During the movements, they never had a GPS that could guide them to their aimed destination, they used only handmade tools, and they never had the strollers they could use to hold their kids along the journey. However, during their time there was a huge discovery of technology, for instance, they invented the boat that could help them close through the lakes during the migration process. Finally, for us to comprehend our present day, we must consider what we were in the past and how we happened to be.

In life, there are several situations that two groups happen to value a single place with the same magnitude but for contrasting reasons and impacts. Mostly the reasons are psychologically controlled where each group happens to be selfish in the struggle to acquire a particular area. During the 18th centuries, for instance during the development and evolution stages, people of China were abducted to go and work on the farms of the colonizers. The migrants were smuggled illegally after being enticed with better lives in the US. This was for a fee, which they could repay after working for close to three years in the foreign land.

This was one of the interest China is known for its complexity and invention of most of the technology. The US government could secure these experts for them to go in the US and work there to improve their economy, which was compensated for continuing getting the skills. This is an exact scenario where the smugglers and the US government are interested in the China value but with different intentions altogether. The both groups may be influenced by their culture and religion to have the same interest in the same place due to the value that each group mounts on the place in question. The migration has encouraged this due to intermarriages and other cultural conflicts.

Paris is well documented to have the most of the museums, research centers, archives, and libraries for the anthropological research that remains vital to the whole world. All the products are located around the Eiffel Tower where there is only a walk distance apart when one needs to access all the places to access the heritage that is endowed around the tower in France. The most recognized are the research archives and the libraries if the Museum of Human Kind and the collections of different libraries of the France natural humanity. Most of the major anthropological archives are located in Palais de Chaillot, which is at a walk distance to the well-known Eiffel Tower. The Tower is made more re-known due to the accumulated long time archives that are used to store the anthropological societies of France. All the history is put in the manuscript of collections at Musee de Homme, where the access to the societal archives has been restricted for all the visitors.

The Library of France is the one that maintains the research wealth of anthropological merit including the geographical archives since 1942, where the maps and plans are stored. All these items led to the listing of Paris in the world heritage list. The UNESCO (WHC), world heritage center, has its headquarters in Paris. However, all the other documentations are available online in WHC website, which seeks to help maintain the limited visitation of the physical resident. The prime libraries of French Institute, among other ten research libraries, are endorsed with the ability to maintain and renovate the photography collections and the ancient arts, culture, and religion in the whole of Asia. There are also numerous repositories, and Islamic manuscripts that are preserved in France and they have been presented for the survey by Francis Richard, as well as Geoffrey Roper, who is the general editor.

In conclusion, this tower is significant to the WHC for it gives the reality about the world culture where most of the repositories are reserved. There are several archives, French museums, and libraries that are inclined on anthropological entries. The government of France culture and communication site always provides the directory, as well as the index information for almost all the French research locations that are anthropologically significant. The selection criteria are well founded and involve several steps including having the ability to present a masterpiece of the human creative geniuses, and the exhibition of the high level of human values interchange.