TAKE HOME EXAM Essay Example

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    Business
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  • Level:
    Undergraduate
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A Report on Alcohol Based Legislation

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Lecturer:

Contents

Introduction 2

Literature Review 2

Methodology 4

Data Collection Methods 6

Sampling 6

Data Analysis 7

Ethical Considerations 7

Validity and Reliability 8

Conclusion 8

Reference 10

Introduction

In the early 1980’s, Australia as an English – Speaking commonwealth country was faced with heavy bans imposed on the tobacco industry. This legislative move was because of the massive negative effects of tobacco at the time. These effects caused a large number of deaths across the country mainly of which were premature deaths. These deaths made most tobacco users quit smoking in the country. In turn, this heavily affected the Tobacco industry economically. In order to impose further bans on the tobacco industry, the government passed a rule that prohibited any advertisements by the tobacco sector. The government also discouraged any participation of the sector in any social activities. To ensure this worked the government prohibited the tobacco sector to sponsor any social and cultural activity such as sports.

This report tries to analyze the subsequent result of implementation in the manufacturing sector especially brewing companies. It also tries to define the effects of this move on both the social and economic culture of the society and the sector at large. Various research theories and techniques form the basis of upon which the conclusion is drawn. It is from these techniques that I was able to draw towards the given conclusion in this report.

Literature Review

There is an existing research proposal, discussing the tobacco ban in Australia. The World Health Organization issued this report under the Tobacco Free Initiative. It heavily discussed the smoke – free policies in Australia. The report pinpointed some of the different strategies used in imposing these smoke free policies. These strategies include self-regulation and smoke-free legislations (Jacobsen 2011, p.65).

Based on this report Tobacco was the number one killer in Australia in the early 1980s. As a result, the government had to find ways in which it would reduce the effect of tobacco in the country. Based on research it was discovered environmental tobacco smoke possess a great health threat to both non-smokers and active smokers. Such step leads to government’s use of self-regulatory measures to curb this emerging disaster. This saw the government prohibit the use of tobacco in workplaces and public areas. Those who desired to use tobacco had to go to specified areas called smoking zones. Subsequently, this strategy was highly successful especially in the Australian Public Service sector at the time. Because of its success, various sectors across Australia embraced it. Government buildings were the first to adopt this trend and they stuck to it. This strategy was highly effective since up to date a smoke-free environment is the expected condition within government buildings and other professional settings (Harper & Martin 2010, p.24).

The report stated that after the successful use of self –regulation, smoke- free legislations followed. The first sort of legislative law was the ban of tobacco use in all domestic airline flights. The government put this law into act in 1987. This was later followed by tobacco ban in interstate buses and coaches, international airline flights within Australia, all Australian flights anywhere in the world and finally on domestic sectors of international airlines. The main aim was to realize the goal of the National Tobacco Strategy of 1999to 2003; which was to improve the health of all Australians by reducing or eliminating their exposure towards any form of tobacco. In order for this to work, there were a set of guideline that had be followed up to the core. This included no right to smoke in workplaces, smoking restrictions to apply in all premises except for those that meet given health based criteria and compliance policy based on education and community support. This strategy had various challenges especially in the economics of the country. This strategy brought about the drastic decrease in sales of tobacco related product in Australia resulting to a negative economic impact. Despite the heavy bans imposed by this approach, majority of workplaces did not comply with it. This still posed a great health challenge in Australia (Tobin, Moodie, & Livingstone 2011, p.102). Based on study results on this report, majority of workers in Victorian work places are still highly exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. The hospitality sector also faced a serve blow on its economy. It was a law any venue that wanted to allow the use of tobacco had to attain a license at a given fee. This fee was slightly higher affecting the gross prices of services and goods in these joints. As a result, this meant few customers in this premises hence yielding low profits (Smith, Chapman, & Dunlop 2013, p.79). Such joints are casinos and hotels. Not all casino owners were willing to pay this fee, majority operated behind the law.

Methodology

In order to carry out an appropriate research, various methods which will be used. Each method should be efficient for the specific research and be able to give reliable results. There various methods with interesting results that will inspire the proposal. These methods are analyzing previous research results, use of descriptions, correlation tests, Analysis of previous experiments (Kothari 2010, p.76).

Analyzing previous results would be a good approach while carrying out this research. By scrutinizing these results, one is able to know the type sector he or she is dealing with. For example, we can analyze the results of the World Health Organization on the effects of alcohol in Australia and the world. It is from this result that we can make sound decisions on the related topic. Through these results, we are able to access the impact of alcohol legislations in various sectors in Australia. This is through validation of previous data.

The use of descriptive analysis will be in favor of the best-desired results in this report. This will involve an in-depth description of the phenomenon under scrutiny. Analyzing the phenomenon and then developing a hypothesis about the situation will help achieve the required results. This systematic method will involve the study of each element in the phenomenon. In this, we will describe the various impacts of alcohol on the country’s culture and economy. In addition to this, we will illustrate the various anticipated impacts of alcohol legislations in the country.

Another good method would be use of correlative comparisons. This method tries to determine the degree of relationships between two or more variables in a phenomena using statistical information. Here there is large use of facts studied to determine any trend or pattern in data. By using this method, data collection is on natural settings. Because of using this technique, we will be able to determine the relationship between alcohol consumption and the various element of the society.

Experiments on the other hand also yield results with high level of accuracy. Experiments involve the use of scientific methodologies to establish the relationship between the cause and effects of given phenomenon. For an experiment to be successful, there must be control of all the elements expect the one under scrutiny. Subjects assigning is random and not based on natural occurrence. Using this methodology, we can determine the effects of alcohol legislations on random sectors in the country.

Data Collection Methods

In order to collect data efficiently we will use methods that will enable us to acquire both primary and secondary data. This will involve the interviews, use of questioners, surveys and observations (Dawson & Catherine 2002, p.82).

In this research, we will use personal interviews as one of the method of data collection. This method involves approaching the target interviewer and asking various questions with the aim of receive

First-hand information: This method is highly flexible and reliable when collecting various views at random. This supports the correlation methodology since we can correlate the society and alcohol legislation based on people’s feelings and views. Similarly, one can use questionnaires to acquire the same information. Questionnaires tend to be more efficient since most people do not shy off while answering them unlike when answering questions directly (Kothari 1985, p.92).

In this report, we will use the direct approach of survey. This involves the researcher directly asking questions about behaviors and thoughts. This will enable us to acquire the intended data for descriptive analysis of the phenomenon. This also goes hand in hand with the use observations. Through various observations, we are able to gather the required data effectively.

Sampling

In order to come up with a sound conclusion it is important to identify the target audience on whom data collection will depend on. It is advisable and professional to divide the target audience into groups based on various structures. These sections of the group define a sample space of the selected target audience. The sample should be collaborative and allow the researcher to make accurate estimations based on their thoughts and behavior. The results acquired will roughly represent the results of the whole target audience. In order to obtain the desired results we will use no probability samples. Here the researcher will chose the easiest population to work with. This means that we will work the group that will easily collaborate. By using this, we will effectively collect data without any interruption. In addition, this will promote transparency, since the group is willing to cooperate.

Data Analysis

It is important to clean, model, transform and inspect collected data. Its aim is to gain the appropriate information to draw towards the best decision and the appropriate conclusion. In this research, we will use the Qualitative Data Analysis method. The method provides a very personal process with less rigid rules and procedures for content analysis. This method is systematic and allows the researcher to analyze the contents of the findings and identify the main themes from the sample’s answers. This will highly be in favor of the used research methods since they involve scrutiny of the data into fine important information.

There various steps that are essential to follow will undergo Qualitative Data Analysis. This includes identifying the main themes, code assignment to the main themes, classification of responses under the main theme and integrating themes and responses respectively. If this are adhered to the results will be of the best quality.

Ethical Considerations

While conducting a research it is highly advisable to consider ethical related issues. In the research, this was possible by avoiding being bias, good treatment of the samples, using favorable research methods and reporting the correct findings. In order to attain high-level results, being bias was highly avoided while conducting the research. In addition, each member of the samples chosen received good and fair treatment from the researchers. We used research methods that were in favor of both the researchers and the individuals involved.

Despite trying to avoid any unethical behavior, some individuals regarded various questions as unethical. This is because they felt as though their privacy was being compromised by the questions asked. As a result, some did not answer those questions while other answered dishonestly.

Validity and Reliability

Based on the results attained and the vigorous process followed during the research I believe the results are highly reliable. This is because majority of the participants were honest and willing to participate. I also attribute the reliability of the results to the fact that the methods used highly favored the majority of participants. Despite majority of the participants, being honest some did not follow the trend while some responded to the research jokingly.

Conclusion

According to research findings, the government should not contemplate enforcing legislation on alcohol. Such step may have a negative impact on the economic progress as well as various socio-cultural activities in the country. Although the research reveals several advantages of this legislation, its disadvantages however exceeds advantages hence it is not healthy for economic growth and social – cultural posterity in the society.

Instead of implementing this legislation, the government may opt to make several amendments to it through relevant bodies. It may also hold wide consultation with all stakeholders to ensure it achieves its goal without harming the economy. As it is, the legislation seems to be more subjective than objective since it fails to address serious social and economic implications. There is no sense of balance between its social benefits and economic effects.

Reference

Allen L, 2010.Union Slams Smoke-free Slowness. Australian Financial Review

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2010). «The Health and Welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, October 2010.» Journal ABS Cat No 4704.0(Issue).

Busfield W, 2011. Cigarette Maker in Six-Year Plot.The Herald-Sun, Melbourne

Busfield W., 2011.Smoke and Dining Battle Looms The Herald-Sun, Melbourne,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. «Cigarette Smoking among adults – US 2006» MMWR, 56(44):1157-61.

Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’ Distributors,

Department of Human Services, Victoria. Business Urged to Help Stamp out Smoking. 12 October 2000, Melbourne.28.

Harper T, Martin J. Trojan Horses, 2010: How the Tobacco Industry Infiltrates the Smoke free Debate in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 26:6:572-573.20.

Harper T, Martin J. Trojan Horses, 2010: How the Tobacco Industry Infiltrates the Smoke free Debate in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 26:6:572-573.20.

Jacobsen G, 2011. Smoke-free Bars on Way, but Not Fast Enough for Some. Sydney Morning Herald, p2.22.

Jacobsen G, 2011. Smoke-free Bars on Way, but Not Fast Enough for Some. Sydney Morning Herald, p2.22.

Johnston, V. and D. Thomas ,2008. «Smoking behaviours in a remote Australian Indigenous community: The influence of family and other factors» Social Science & Medicine 67(11): 1708-1716.

Kothari, C.R., 2010, Research Methodology-Methods and Techniques, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited.

Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, (2nd.ed), Singapore, Pearson Education.

Mullins R, Trotter L, Letcher T, 2010. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Public Opinions and Behaviour in 1998-1999. Quit Evaluation Studies No.10.Victorian Smoking and Health Program, Melbourne.27.

Smith, A., Chapman, S., & Dunlop, S. (2013). Supplementary files-What do we know about unassisted smoking cessation in Australia? A systematic review, 2005-2012.

Tobin, C., Moodie, A. R., & Livingstone, C. (2011). A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 58.