Systems Engineering Principles 3

STUDENT NAME: XXXX

TITLE: SYSTEM ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR AIR DEPLOYABLE AMPHIBIOUS VEHICLE (ADAV)

©2016

Background Information

The Australian Defense Forces has identified the need for further improvement to the functionality of their Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicles, in a bid to cope with the ever increasing, more deadly threats in the battlefield environment. This has led to the innovation and development of new technologies to aid the ADAV’s in adequate detection, evasion and protection of warzone threats. Some of these technologies include wide – range bomb detection capabilities, automatic terrain adapting locomotive system, communication capabilities with the command post, and mobile gun system, among others.

However, these highly capable systems have specific requirements, which all have to be fitted into a single vehicle and work seamlessly as one system. Therefore, integration of these capabilities is very crucial so that the vehicle can fulfil the requirements of the ADF without excessive modifications to the original design of the ADAV. This will save the cost of implementing these new technologies, while also reducing the training that the crew will be required to undertake in order to operate the vehicles to their advantage during conflicts.

This paper discusses the requirements of these capabilities, and the modifications necessary to ensure they integrate smoothly into a single system.

Table of Contents

iiBackground Information

1A – OPERATIONAL CONCEPT DOCUMENT (OCD)

11. Scope

11.1 Capability Identification

11.2 Document Purpose and Intended Audience

11.3 Justification for Acquisition

21.4 System and Acquisition Boundaries

21.5 Context

32. Solution Independent Capability Needs

32.1 Mission Overview

42.2 Operational Policies and Constraints

42.3 Personnel Interfaces to System

42.4 Operational Scenario Summary

42.5 Common Scenario Attributes

52.5.1 Scenario 1 – Mobile Gun System

62.5.2 Scenario 2 – Bomb Detection Capabilities (Wide Range)

72.5.3 Scenario 3 – Direct Communication Capabilities with the Command Post

82.5.4 Scenario 4 – Automatic Terrain Adapting Locomotive System

92.6 Consolidated Operational Needs

92.7 Consolidated Functional Needs

103. Existing System

103.1 Existing System Overview

103.2 Existing System Operational Capability Comparison

113.3 Existing System Internal Capability Comparison

113.4 Existing System Planned or Active Upgrades

113.5 Existing System Internal Personnel Interfaces

123.6 Existing System Internal Functionality

134. System Solution Description

134.1 System Description

134.2 System Interfaces

134.3 System Personnel

144.4 System Functionality and Performance

144.5 Support System Needs

144.6 System Evolution and Technology Forecast

15B- FUNCTIONAL AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (FPS)

155. Scope

155.1 Identification

155.2 System Overview

155.3 Document Overview

156. Applicable Documents

167. Requirements

167.1 Missions

167.2 System Boundaries and Context

177.3 Required States and Modes

177.4 System Capability Requirements

187.5 Safety

19C – TEST CONCEPT DOCUMENT (TCD)

198. Scope

199. Purpose

1910. Reference Documents and Terminology

1910.1 Reference Documents

1910.2 Terminology

2011. Top Level System Performance Requirements

20General

2012. Test and Evaluation

20T & E Strategy

2113. Major Test Evaluation Activities

21Summary of Major Test and Evaluation Activities

2114. T & E Authorities, Agencies and Stakeholders

T & E Authorities and Agencies 21

22T & E Stakeholders

2215. T & E Support, Resources and Funding

2215.1 T & E Resources

2215.2 Funding

23Conclusion

References 24

A – OPERATIONAL CONCEPT DOCUMENT (OCD)

This is a document that The Contractor and Commonwealth use as the basis for common understandings by all stakeholders, including the developers of a system, and its end users (the warfighters).

1. Scope

1.1 Capability Identification

The capabilities that are proposed to be installed in the ADAV to facilitate its functionality discussed here are;

  • Mobile gun system

  • Bomb detection capabilities (wide range)

  • Automatic terrain adapting locomotive system

  • Communication capabilities with the Command post

1.2 Document Purpose and Intended Audience

The purpose of the OCD is to;

  1. Detail the characteristics of the Mission and Support Systems with regard to the operations of the vehicle

  2. Facilitate the comprehension of the overall objectives of the system for both the Mission and Support System

  3. Describe the missions and scenarios associated with operations and support of both Mission and Support Systems

  4. Provide a reference for determining the ‘fitness of purpose’ of the capability

The OCD is prepared for the stakeholders of the military system, as a common reference detailing the requirements and application of the system. The stakeholders in a military system range from the developers (such as IT specialists, weapons experts) to the end users of the system (the soldiers). It acts as a translation vehicle between the stakeholders who are specialists in various domains.

1.3 Justification for Acquisition

The ADAV is a necessary requirement for the ADF as it provides them with strategic advantage on the battlefield, allowing small groups of soldiers to traverse hostile environments on the battlefield. However, in the recent past, the arms race has led to the development of devastating weapons that are undetectable with conventional technologies, increasing the vulnerability of the Australian Military. Furthermore, war on conventional terrain result to very large collateral damage, and as a result, modern armies have opted to gain battlefield advantage by waging wars on hostile terrain.

Therefore, there is need to update the system capabilities of the ADAV to give the soldiers better protection on the battlefield, increasing their chances of surviving an encounter with enemy combatants. The decision to upgrade the system is to be made by the management of the Australian Army, sanctioning the use of funds to develop the technologies and train the relevant personnel.

1.4 System and Acquisition Boundaries

The Mission and Support Systems will require the proposed upgrades to facilitate easier facilitation of their activities. The contract to upgrade the system will be limited to the ADAV’s as this is the way the new technologies can be utilized more effectively. The existing vehicles can carry a maximum of 5 people and the new technologies should be integrated such that no additional personnel will be required in the ADAV. The existing communications system makes use physical infrastructure, and the proposed capabilities will require the implementation of state of the art infrastructure. The effectiveness of proposed capabilities will be measured in terms of the operational effectiveness of the upgraded ADAV’s compared to the existing vehicles.

1.5 Context

The Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle is used by the Australian Defense Forces to access non- conventional terrain to gain advantage in a warzone, or supply forces on the battlefield without exposing themselves to enemy fire. Due to the high compartmentalization implemented, the ADAV is relatively independent in its operations, with the only external contact being with The Command Post. The crew in the vehicle can also interact with other crews on the battlefield to ward them off sites likely to be loaded with threats, such as assailants or explosives.

Due to the ever- changing nature of the battlefield, it is necessary that there is real time communication between the Command Post and the ADAV so that the crew can adjust accordingly. This means that redundancies should be placed in case there is a failure or attack on the communications infrastructure.

2. Solution Independent Capability Needs

War can be carried out on many kinds of terrain, with some of these not being particularly friendly. Having a vehicle that can traverse such terrain can prove to be the difference between winning and losing. Further advantage is provided if the vehicle can automatically change its locomotive system to suit the environment it finds itself in, without any loss of strategic ground. This allows the crew to focus solely on the enemy combatants. A state of the art communications system will allow the crew to inform The Command Post of the condition on the battlefield for better decision making and relaying of commands.

The bomb detection capabilities allow the crew to spot explosive devices that may have been left by the enemy and cordon off the area till the relevant authorities can deactivate them. This could prevent casualties of the vehicle’s crew and other soldiers. The mobile gun system provides the crew with an attack option should they find themselves engaged by enemy assailants. Its efficiency could be difference between life and death for the soldiers.

2.1 Mission Overview

The proposed capabilities can be used for various missions, such as;

  1. Infiltration Missions – The automatic terrain adaptive locomotive system will allow the ADAV to make inroads in the battlefield through terrain the enemy will not be expecting them to use. This can facilitate the Australian Army to attack the enemy on multiple fronts, causing maximum damage

  2. All- out Attack Missions – The mobile gun system provides the ADAV with significant attack capabilities, able to fire numerous rounds a minute that could incapacitate soft targets and some hard targets

  3. Threat Detection Missions – The vehicle can venture out into the battlefield before other soldiers and identify threats using its wide range bomb detection capabilities to establish safe rotes to traverse the warzone.

  4. Reconnaissance Missions – The commander of the ADAV can relay important battlefield information to The Command Post that could alter the strategies that the Military employ in the conflict

  5. Rescue Missions – The automatic terrain adaptive locomotive system will allow the ADAV to traverse the battlefield far much easier than other military vehicles, meaning that it can reach battalions that have been cornered by the enemy

  6. Supply Missions – The terrain adaptive locomotive system will facilitate the ADAV to make supply deliveries to units cordoned off conventional means of supply

2.2 Operational Policies and Constraints

The application of these capabilities will be limited to international treaties that both parties in the war are signatories of. However, in most cases of war, most of the guidelines in international treaties are rendered moot. In the case where, the Australian Military will be required to traverse another country’s terrain during war, the proper channels of approval need to be followed to prevent any infringement of the other country’s rights. The ammunition used in the ADAV’s mobile gun system should be according to spectrum management regulations so as not to cause adverse aftereffects to those that come into contact with the battlefield.

2.3 Personnel Interfaces to System

The proposed capabilities will be installed in the ADAV and its crew will actively engage the system in their day to day activities. The crew of the ADAV will exclusively be members of the Australian Military. The crew will need to be trained effectively on the operation of the system, to ensure there’s smooth functioning on the battlefield. Other personnel who may also come into contact with the system are engineers who develop and maintain the system to ensure their effectiveness is maintained. The engineers should be recognized employees of the organizations contracted to develop the technologies or officially certified sub- contractors.

2.4 Operational Scenario Summary

There are several scenarios that will activate the full functionality of the system when the ADAV is deployed. Some of the common scenarios include;

  1. Day to day operation scenario

  2. Rescue scenario

  3. Infiltration scenario

2.5 Common Scenario Attributes

The following attributes are assumed to be common for all the scenarios mentioned above;

  1. The scenarios take place over non- conventional terrain, with transition points between different geographical conditions

  2. The scenarios take place in harsh weather, such as during storms, to ensure the maximum possible challenge on the ADAV

  3. The scenarios take place in hostile environments, like in a jungle, to test the full functionality of the vehicle

  4. In the scenarios, there is a threat of enemy assailants and explosive devices on the crew of the ADAV

2.5.1 Scenario 1 – Mobile Gun System

Summary of Situation

The ADAV will be required to be installed with a mobile gun system, usually in the form of a tank gun (rifled cannon) for use in the case of exchange of fire with armed assailants. It is important that the vehicle holds its own on the battle field before reinforcements arrive so as to prevent advance of the enemy. The efficiency and effectiveness of this mobile gun system is crucial and an underpinning factor on the safety and survival of the crew in the vehicle.

Summary of Military Response

The rifled cannon installed in the vehicle should be able to take different types of ammunition for flexibility as specific ammunition may not be available during war. The ammunition should allow the ADAV to;

    1. Destroy light armored and thin skinned vehicles

    2. Provide anti- personnel fragmentation

    3. Create openings in walls for infantry access

The ADAV may perform some tank operations but is less likely to engage in combat with tanks. The advantage it has over tanks is that tanks are limited to which terrain they can comfortably engage in warfare.

Summary of Operational Needs

Reasonable allowances should be provide for the crew to be able to make repairs to crucial parts of the ADAV damaged during battle, without having to disembark from the vehicle, such as the auto- loader. These allowances should not compromise other important aspects of the vehicle such as stability and maneuverability.

2.5.2 Scenario 2 – Bomb Detection Capabilities (Wide Range)

Summary of Situation

The ADAV will also be equipped with sensors to determine the location of explosives such as bombs and landmines, which are commonly used in the battlefield environment. The timely detection of these explosives could help save the lives of the troops, as well as damage to highly expensive equipment. However, the arms race has resulted in very sophisticated masking devices for explosives and no one method can be used conclusively to detect all kinds of explosives.

Summary of Military Response

Laser- based detectors have proved to be a reliable method to identify explosives concealed, due to their potential for multi- threat and stand- off detection capabilities. This gives it an edge over other existing methods such as imaging and chemical identification, which can only be used for limited threat scenarios. The technology employs the use of different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum to view what is underneath. The wavelength of light emitted can be controlled allowing for improved spectroscopy (chemical analysis) of the target matter. The technology can also be used to detect the presence of explosives at long ranges, allowing the crew of the ADAV to avoid that area and cordon it off so that other troops are aware of the danger and bomb experts can diffuse the situation [ CITATION Wal09 l 1033 ].

Summary of Operational Needs

The laser technology used for bomb detection is a very sophisticated system, and as such, this scenario has established that there is need for adequate training of the personnel for efficient operation. This scenario has also established that there is need for high resolution, wide geographic area emitter geolocation capability to be able to locate and identify the explosive devices on the battlefield.

2.5.3 Scenario 3 – Direct Communication Capabilities with the Command Post

Summary of Situation

The ADAV proposed has a dedicated channel for direct communication with the command post or the Army base communication tower. This consists of a secure radio wave line shielded by the latest technologies from tapping by enemies. The ADAV therefore should have a dongle antennae fitted to its surface to enable it to transmit its signals to the satellite at any point in any terrain.

Summary of Military Response

The ADAV is fitted with a wide array of electronic systems which process the influx of information received while on the battle field. These systems should be able to assess the data, filter it and present the relevant data to the crew members (commander) for them to make the appropriate changes.

Summary of Operational Needs

The communication system requires gadgets and equipment that facilitate its operation. These technologies do not function best when placed inside the vehicle, due to obstruction and interference from other systems in the vehicle. Therefore, these systems are installed on the outside of the vehicle, with robust housing to withstand the harsh environment of the battlefield. The continuous relay of information requires the use of various infrastructure, physical, such as telephone masts or wireless, like satellites. Wireless systems are advantageous as there is no physical infrastructure near the battlefield that the enemies can attack to hamper communication. The protection of this infrastructure is of paramount importance.

2.5.4 Scenario 4 – Automatic Terrain Adapting Locomotive System

Summary of Situation

Common vehicles cannot change from one kind of terrain to another, such as between land and water. The ADAV on the other hand, should be well equipped to transition from terrain to terrain without any diminish in the operating capacity. This is important as it allows the vehicle to engage the enemy with the same intensity on either terrain, or also allow for easy retreat procedures before the enemy can get to them. One should also take into account that ingress of water will result in failure of most of the operations of the ADAV as they are computer controlled.

Summary of Military Response

The ADAV could have well reinforced tires or chain link that could withstand bombardment for movement on land. For faster movement the tires are preferred to the chain link due to the ease of manoeuvrability. The chain link on the other hand provides better durability and protection. For movement in water, the ADAV could be fitted with retractable rotors which are activated when in water for faster movement. The controls for either form of transportation could be integrated so that the crew can use the same navigation controls throughout.

Summary of Operational Needs

The crew of the ADAV should be adequately trained to handle the locomotive controls when the vehicle transits from one terrain to the other. Preferably, the operation should be programmed such that similar actions are performed by similar control surfaces. The body of the vehicle should also be air- tight to prevent ingress of water during transition and movement.

2.6 Consolidated Operational Needs

The Critical Operational Issues (COIs) are issues which could derail the project should they not be resolved. The following is a list of the COIs relevant to the ADAV capability systems;

  • COI 1: Location – Is the crew able to locate the positions of enemy assailants and explosive devices on the battlefield?

  • COI 2: Identification – Is the crew able to identify all the entities on the battlefield, to differentiate between friend and foe?

  • COI 3: Locomotion – Is the crew able to traverse various terrains effectively, with seamless transitions between them?

  • COI 4: Engaging – does the mobile gun system provide the crew with adequate firepower to engage combatants on the battlefield?

2.7 Consolidated Functional Needs

Systems Engineering Principles 3

Figure 1: Functional model of the capability system[ CITATION The15 l 1033 ]

3. Existing System

3.1 Existing System Overview

Like most military transport facilities, the Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle is a heavily compartmentalized unit. This allows the vehicle to undertake its operations with very little to no external support. The capabilities proposed to be installed in the vehicle should be programmed such that the independence of the vehicle is not affected, or better yet, improved.

The current ADAV is very flexible, with relatively good locomotive ability over different terrain. The physical operational environment necessary for the ADAV to disseminate its functions include;

  1. Communication infrastructure – Contact between the ADAV crew and the Command Post is achieved through physical infrastructure in the form of satellites and transmission masts

  2. Computing hardware and software – There are a lot of sensors installed on the ADAV and there is need for computer software to process the data being collected into useful information for the crew. The hardware allows the crew to manipulate the data accordingly

The existing system support environment for the ADAV is in the form of reinforcements from other units in the Australian Military. In case the vehicle is incapacitated, they can request for back up.

3.2 Existing System Operational Capability Comparison

The existing ADAV units provide relatively robust functioning to the ADF. They can be used for

  • movement across different terrain,

  • can be used to communicate the situation on the battlefield back to command post,

  • can provide security and safety to the crew in the ADAV from soft attacks, such as hand guns and grenades, and

  • can effectively engage the enemy over relatively short distances.

3.3 Existing System Internal Capability Comparison

Despite the various functionalities that the existing ADAV system provides, it possesses some major shortcomings such as;

  1. inability to engage enemy combatants with heavy machinery, such as tanks

  2. poor transitioning of the vehicle between different terrains

  3. inability to identify explosive devices cloaked using modern camouflaging techniques

  4. susceptibility of communication infrastructure to attack, cutting off connection

The proposed capabilities aim to address these issues and provide the ADAV with added functionality.

3.4 Existing System Planned or Active Upgrades

The capabilities that are proposed to be installed in the ADAV to facilitate its functionality discussed here are;

  • Mobile gun system

  • Bomb detection capabilities (wide range)

  • Automatic terrain adapting locomotive system

  • Communication capabilities with the Command post

3.5 Existing System Internal Personnel Interfaces

The following personnel will be involved with the internal workings of these capability systems on the ADAV;

  1. Supervisor – the Commander of the crew in the ADAV acts as the supervisor of the team, sanctioning all actions undertaken by the system

  2. Operator – the crew of the ADAV are regarded as the operators of the system as they will be in contact with it during war scenarios

  3. Maintainer – the engineers working in the company contracted to develop the capability system will be responsible for maintenance of the system

  4. Trainer – the developers of the system will be required to train the operators on the workings of the system so that they may be conversant

3.6 Existing System Internal Functionality

The high- level functionality provided by the system to the ‘inside’ personnel include;

  1. Task acceptance and planning – the communication system allows orders to be relayed from the Command Post which guides the actions of the crew in the ADAV

  2. Manual geolocation functionality – the ground positioning system (GPS) installed in the vehicle allows the Command Post to determine its location with reference to other units and enemy combatants

4. System Solution Description

4.1 System Description

The proposed capability systems will increase the safety and security provided to the crew in the ADAV, as well as providing them with means of getting strategic advantage on the battlefield. These capabilities allow the vehicle to maneuver difficult terrains to access major strongholds that could determine the direction the conflict takes.

There is no additional support requirements that the implementation of the proposed capabilities will have on the Military resources.

4.2 System Interfaces

The crew of the ADAV will interact with the system mainly using display screens with customizable controls. The software in the system will process the data that the various sensors installed on the vehicle will pick up, and translate it into useable information using the logical interactions programmed into it. The messages from the system will be relayed in coded language to prevent unauthorized parties from accessing the information should the communication be intercepted.

The major constraint on interfaces is the limited space in the ADAV due to the numerous systems installed. The developers of the system should strive to make the system as compact as possible, with as much information being relayed on a single display.

4.3 System Personnel

Most ADAVs can support a crew of between 3 – 8 people, depending on the size. However, every vehicle must have a commander, driver and gunner [ CITATION Dep13 l 1033 ].

The Commander is the highest ranking officer in the vehicle, and is charged with making the operational decisions in the field [ CITATION MyJ16 l 1033 ]. The driver needs to be sufficiently skilled to maneuver the vehicle stealthily in the battle field, to gain ground on enemies, or even to make a hasty retreat. The driver’s skills are also paramount in any shock action the ADAV will be involved in, as speed is of the essence [ CITATION ADF16 l 1033 ].

The gunner is responsible for any aggressive action the vehicle takes. Once the commander has the ‘all clear’, he instructs the gunner on the targets he is to aim and fire at. As this is the vehicle’s main offense capability, the rifled cannon should be in top- shape condition at all times, with repairs being made when necessary.

4.4 System Functionality and Performance

The performance of the system can be assessed using the following quality factors;

  1. Reliability – the automatic terrain adapting locomotive system presents the ADAV with high reliability even when the terrain presents significant challenges to movement

  2. Flexibility – the proposed capability systems provide the vehicle with increased functionality, meaning it can be deployed to various missions, such as infiltration and rescue

  3. Maintainability – the maintenance of some of the proposed capabilities is inconvenient as the crew may be required to exit the vehicle in case of damage. This may present further risks during war

  4. Expansion – the ADAV has very limited expansion, and the installation of capabilities requiring large spaces could necessitate large scale modifications

4.5 Support System Needs

The support to be afforded to the system can be categorized as;

  1. Operational support – the ADAV requires reinforcement from heavy military vehicles when dealing with enemy combatants with heavy firepower

  2. Engineering support – the system to be installed in the ADAV is developed by engineers, who understand its performance

  3. Maintenance support – the crew may not be fully aware of all the inner workings of the system, and maintenance staff will be necessary should there be any damage

  4. Supply support – the limited space in the ADAV means that there is a limit on the amount of ammunition that can be carried, requiring re- supply

  5. Training support – the crew of the ADAV will need to be trained on the operations of the system to ensure smooth running during application

4.6 System Evolution and Technology Forecast

Due to the ongoing race wars amongst the world’s superpowers, advancement in the field of weapons is inevitable. Since the Cold War, weapons development has followed an exponential pattern. Development of weapons that occupy less space, and are camouflaged to avoid detection but cause more widespread destruction will require the innovation of systems that can detect or even protect against these weapons.

B- FUNCTIONAL AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION (FPS)

This document acts as the foundation upon which all other technical requirements and specifications are derived.

5. Scope

5.1 Identification

Project Name: Upgrade of the Functionality of the Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle

The capabilities that are proposed to be installed in the ADAV to facilitate its functionality discussed here are;

  • Mobile gun system

  • Bomb detection capabilities (wide range)

  • Automatic terrain adapting locomotive system

  • Communication capabilities with the Command post

5.2 System Overview

The system is at the first pass, where the merits and demerits associated with the proposed capabilities are analyzed. The main aspects being considered include funding for the project, effectiveness of the capabilities to achieving the mission objective, training of the personnel required for proper operation of the system, among others. Military projects are relatively independent of the political environment in the country as the risk of threat remains even with change in leadership. However, modifications can be made if new technologies that serve the purpose more effectively are developed before the implementation of the proposed capabilities.

5.3 Document Overview

The FPS document performs the following functions [ CITATION Def02 l 1033 ];

  1. To specify the requirements for the proposed system

  2. To provide the reference for design and qualification testing of the system

  3. To address the total system capability (initial versions)

6. Applicable Documents

The Government document referred to in this FPS document are;

  1. Capability Development Group, 2006. Defence Capability Development Manual, Canberra, Australia: Defence Publishing Service.

  2. Defence Materiel Organization, 2002. Capability Definitions Document Guide. 1.1 ed. Canberra: Director General Materiel Management Policy and Services.

7. Requirements

7.1 Missions

The proposed capabilities can be used for various missions, such as;

  1. Infiltration Missions – The automatic terrain adaptive locomotive system will allow the ADAV to make inroads in the battlefield through terrain the enemy will not be expecting them to use. This can facilitate the Australian Army to attack the enemy on multiple fronts, causing maximum damage

  2. All- out Attack Missions – The mobile gun system provides the ADAV with significant attack capabilities, able to fire numerous rounds a minute that could incapacitate soft targets and some hard targets

  3. Threat Detection Missions – The vehicle can venture out into the battlefield before other soldiers and identify threats using its wide range bomb detection capabilities to establish safe rotes to traverse the warzone.

  4. Reconnaissance Missions – The commander of the ADAV can relay important battlefield information to The Command Post that could alter the strategies that the Military employ in the conflict

  5. Rescue Missions – The automatic terrain adaptive locomotive system will allow the ADAV to traverse the battlefield far much easier than other military vehicles, meaning that it can reach battalions that have been cornered by the enemy

  6. Supply Missions – The terrain adaptive locomotive system will facilitate the ADAV to make supply deliveries to units cordoned off conventional means of supply

7.2 System Boundaries and Context

Systems Engineering Principles 3 1

Figure 2: System boundaries and context

7.3 Required States and Modes

This section allows for better understanding of the time- variant characteristics of the proposed capability system. The states and modes can exist simultaneously (X) or be mutually exclusive (O)

Operational State

Training State

Maintenance State

Normal Mode

Degraded Mode

Emergency Mode

Diagnostic Mode

Operational State

Training State

Maintenance State

Normal Mode

Degraded Mode

Emergency Mode

Diagnostic Mode

7.4 System Capability Requirements

The requirements for the capability systems proposed are;

  • Mobile gun system

In order to ensure the crew are properly accustomed to the operations of the vehicle, sufficient training should be conducted. However, this training needs to happen in a safe environment where the variables of the battle simulations done can be sufficiently controlled, such as a gun range. Mobile resupply stations can be established to provide the vehicle with ammunition reinforcements during war.

  • Bomb detection capabilities (wide range)

The development and advancement of bomb detection systems is still ongoing, with new technologies being proposed for application in the battlefield. These advancements cannot take place in the high risk environment of battle, but with the establishment of research facilities in safe areas, most of which are not even close to the warzone. There is also need for facilities where the ADAVs will be brought to be fitted with these technologies to equip them with the detection capability. Unlike the research facilities, these facilities will be required to be at reasonable proximity to the warzone so as to reduce the cost of transportation when the systems are to be installed.

  • Automatic terrain adapting locomotive system

Civil engineering works, such as bridges, may be required if the vehicle is to traverse through hilly terrain or across deep gouges, where the terrain adaptive locomotion may be rendered moot. Plants producing the spare parts for use in repairs are crucial, as traversing difficult terrain often causes a lot of damage.

  • Communication capabilities with the Command post

The continuous relay of information requires the use of various infrastructure, physical, such as telephone masts or wireless, like satellites. Wireless systems are advantageous as there is no physical infrastructure near the battlefield that the enemies can attack to hamper communication. The protection of this infrastructure is of paramount importance.

7.5 Safety

The safety of the capability system can be assessed using two variables;-

  1. Dependency – the safety requirements for a capability systems may be dependent on the existence of other requirements, which if changed or deleted, may lead to the safety of the entire system being compromised

  2. Traceability – the configuration of the system should allow for events that may put the system and its users at risk to be traced back to their source, in order to prevent reoccurrence in the future

C – TEST CONCEPT DOCUMENT (TCD)

8. Scope

The capabilities that are proposed to be installed in the ADAV to facilitate its functionality discussed here are;

  • Mobile gun system

  • Bomb detection capabilities (wide range)

  • Automatic terrain adapting locomotive system

  • Communication capabilities with the Command post

9. Purpose

The purpose of the Test Concept Document is;

  1. To document the strategy that will be used to test and evaluate a system and sub- systems in terms of the capability proposed to be installed

  2. To document test and evaluation issues that are pertinent, such as Critical Technical Parameters, Critical Operational Issues, project schedules, resources, costs and risks

  3. To detail the framework of sub- ordinate documents such as the Test and Evaluation Master Plan

  4. To articulate how the results of the test and evaluation will be used for decision making with regard to risk mitigation and conflict resolution

  5. To determine the effectiveness and suitability of a proposed capability, allowing the Capability Manager to make an informed choice

10. Reference Documents and Terminology

10.1 Reference Documents

Capability Development Group, 2006. Defence Capability Development Manual, Canberra, Australia: Defence Publishing Service.

10.2 Terminology

Abbreviation

Test and Evaluation

Critical Technical Parameters

Critical Operational Issues

Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle

Operational Test and Evaluation

Test and Evaluation Master Plan

11. Top Level System Performance Requirements

General

The critical issues for the ADAV capability systems are detailed in the OCD (Consolidated Operational Needs).

Identifier

Description

FPS Reference

Interoperability – the capabilities proposed to be installed in the ADAV should be integrated such that the operation of one system does not affect the efficiency of the other, that is, they should be mutually exclusive

Survivability – the capabilities are to be used in warzone areas, and as such will be bombarded with all kinds of weapons. The systems should be well protected to withstand such attacks and maintain their efficiency

Capacity – the implementation of all the proposed systems into a single vehicle means that the software will be handling a lot of information, thus should have adequate capacity

Useability – the capabilities proposed should be easily useable by the crew

Safety – the capabilities should ensure the safety of the ADAV and its crew is not compromised by their operation

12. Test and Evaluation

T & E Strategy

The main T&E strategy is mitigation of risks arising from the implementation of the capabilities. It aims to provide a high level of confidence that the risks associated with the system are fully resolved or under control. It also determines whether the cost and resource requirements of further testing are reliable. Early risk mitigation also minimizes the need for extensive T&E in the latter stages of the capability implementation. Comparative tests of the various capabilities will be done using common parameters to determine the effect they have on accomplishing the mission.

The activities to be performed by the various T&E resources are as below;

Table 1: Solution Independent T&E Strategies and Activities

T&E Resource

Activity/ Trial

RAAF aircraft and crew

Deploying and Transportation

Deploying and recovery amphibiously

Maintenance, storage and fueling facilities

Reparability, availability and reliability tests

Access to test facilities

Land and sea performance and endurance

Emergency medical facilities

Casualty treatment and evacuation simulation

Data gathering and analysis techniques

Analyze the effectiveness of the various capability systems

13. Major Test Evaluation Activities

Summary of Major Test and Evaluation Activities

These are the T&E activities to be performed across the capability life- cycle. Examples include;

  1. Development and Production T&E will be performed on the software developer to determine if the software developed is according to the standards required. Operational environments will be simulated to allow for single unit and integration testing. The T&E is to be monitored by the Project Office

  2. Acceptance T&E will be done to establish whether the contractual agreements have been met, towards the end of the acquisition stage. This evaluation is to be conducted by the developer and witnessed by the Project Office as part of risk mitigation

14. T & E Authorities, Agencies and Stakeholders

T & E Authorities and Agencies

T&E Organization

Assignment

RAN Test & Evaluation Analysis Authority

Conduct OT&E

Directorate of Trials

Managing and reporting trial activities

Defence Materiel Organization

Developing the TEMP

Defence Science & Technology Organization

Review prior trials data

T & E Stakeholders

Stakeholder

Capability Development Group

Identification of resources and required funding

DMO Project Office

Develop the TEMP, obtain resources, organize T&E activities

15. T & E Support, Resources and Funding

15.1 T & E Resources

Resource required

Coordinator

T&E related activity

Mobile gun system

DMO, RANRAU

Firepower assessment test

Automatic terrain adapting locomotive system

MCAUST, CM ASSPO

Field obstacle course test; Exercise Talisman Sabre (PMSA)

Bomb detection capability

Communication capability with Command Post

S/W Integration Testing

15.2 Funding

Requirements (DCP Funding)

Acquisition (Project)

In- service (Project)

Disposal (Project)

Conclusion

The capabilities proposed to be installed in the new ADAV’s for use by the Australian Military need to be tested and evaluated with regard to their operation and functionality to assess whether they fulfil the purpose they are intended. The Operation Concept Document, the Function and Performance Specification Development Guide and the Test Concept Document act as the basis for which this assessment is made. They determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed capabilities. The management of the Army (Defence Materiel Organization) can then make informed decisions on whether or not to fund the implementation of these capability systems.

References

ADF, 2016. Tank Crewman. [Online]
Available at: http://www.defencejobs.gov.au/army/jobs/TankCrewman/
[Accessed 13 May 2016].

Capability Development Group, 2006. Defence Capability Development Manual, Canberra, Australia: Defence Publishing Service.

Defence Materiel Organization, 2002. Capability Definitions Document Guide. 1.1 ed. Canberra: Director General Materiel Management Policy and Services.

Department of Defence, 2013. Military Personnel Policy Manual, Canberra: Defence Publishing Service.

MyJobSearch.com, 2016. Army Tank Commander. [Online]
Available at: http://myjobsearch.com/careers/army-tank-commander.html
[Accessed 13 May 2016].

The Air University, 2015. The Military Decision Making Process, Montgomery, AL: The Air University.

Wallin, S., Pettersson, A., Ostmark, H. & Hobro, A., 2009. Laser- based Standoff Detection of Explosives : A Critical Review. Analytical and Bio- Analytical Chemistry, 395(2), pp. 259-274.