Systems Engineering Principles

Student Name: xxxx

Title: Fundamental Inputs To Capability For Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicles (ADAVs)

Abstract

The Australian Defense Forces has expressed the need for development of smart design vehicles to aid them in their various military operations. These vehicles are referred to as Air- Deployable Amphibious Vehicles (ADAVs). This report outlines various capabilities that the new vehicles can be equipped with, utilizing the latest high end technologies, to make them better in operation than the current existing models. The report also gives an overview of the processes of adoption and implementation of the new system, and how to phase out the old system. The personnel required for the implementation of the system, their training and necessary resources for smooth operation are also discussed [ CITATION Dir96 l 1033 ].

The proposed capabilities discussed in this report are Mobile Gun System, wide range Bomb Detection Capabilities, Direct Communication Capabilities (with the command post), and Automatic Terrain- Adapting Locomotive System.

Key words: (ADAV, capabilities, technologies)

Table of Contents

iiAbstract

ivTable of Figures

1Overview 1.

1Background Information 1.1

3Fundamental Inputs to Capability (FIC) 2.

32.1 Mobile Gun System

4Personnel 2.1.1

4Organization 2.1.2

5Collective training 2.1.3

5Major systems 2.1.4

5Supplies 2.1.5

6Facilities 2.1.6

6Support 2.1.7

6Command and Management 2.1.8

7Bomb Detection Capabilities (Wide Range) 2.2

7Personnel 2.2.1

7Organization 2.2.2

8Collective training 2.2.3

8Major systems 2.2.4

8Supplies 2.2.5

8Facilities 2.2.6

9Support 2.2.7

9Command and Management 2.2.8

10Direct Communication Capabilities with the Command Post 2.3

10Personnel 2.3.1

10Organization 2.3.2

10Collective training 2.3.3

10Major systems 2.3.4

11Supplies 2.3.5

11Facilities 2.3.6

11Support 2.3.7

11Command and Management 2.3.8

12Automatic Terrain Adapting Locomotive System 2.4

12Personnel 2.4.1

12Organization 2.4.2

13Collective Training 2.4.3

13Major Systems 2.4.4

13Supplies 2.4.5

13Facilities 2.4.6

13Support 2.4.7

13Command and Management 2.4.8

14Conclusion 3.

14Abbreviations 4.

15References 5.

Table of Figures

3Figure 2‑1: Firing the Mobile Gun System (MilitaryToday.com, 2010)

12Figure 2‑2: An ADAV transitioning onto land (TankNutDave.com, 2015)

  1. Overview

    1. Background Information

Being a specialized kind of vehicle with great flexibility for aquatic and terrestrial mobility, the Air-Deployable Amphibious Vehicle is a very convenient mode of transportation, offering invaluable services which increase capability and convenience for the military. It is used for the transportation of military personnel, especially for operations being conducted in places that are hard to access places like on or near water bodies such as seas, rivers, estuaries or littoral environment. The Air-deployable amphibious vehicles have great camouflage capabilities, blending with the environment. This has facilitated their use by military personnel for years to navigate through remote place undetected, which is crucial for stealth missions. Over the past few years, the capabilities and technological advancements on ADAVs have undergone significant revolution, improving their overall functionality. [ CITATION Mar101 l 1033 ].

There has been a spike in security threats to the nation in the recent past due to the onset of terrorism activities in various parts of the world, increasing the need for the improvement of the security apparatus. The increased threat has pushed governments’ defenses from the traditional bi- polar strategies to a global perspective in their defense strategies in order to effectively deal with the diverse and increasingly advanced warfare. In the current century, warfare has drastically shifted its focus from the convenient easy to reach terrains to areas considered to as Special Operations for Low Intensity Conflicts (SOLIC), special warfare as well as mine warfare among others, due to the extreme number of casualties and loss of property associated with warfare in convenient terrains. Modern warfare in SOLIC terrains has been found to give armies that are well prepared better reach into enemy lines, meaning that they can win battles with less risk to personnel and equipment.

Therefore, in order to ensure effective mobility of military personnel in such cumbersome terrain, there is need to improve the existing transport vehicles. One such technology to ensure that this objective is met is the invention and development of the ADAV.

The name ADAV is derived from the mode of deployment of the vehicle which conventionally, is by an aircraft or a sea vessel, whichever is convenient. ADAVs are based on two technologies, the air-cushion technology, commonly referred to as hovercrafts and the wheeled technologies. The hover craft technology, however, is more preferred due to its flexibility and ability to travel on both land and water [ CITATION Men14 l 1033 ]. Apart from water and land, these vehicle have effective locomotive capabilities on other terrain such as ice, mud, marsh, and swamp among others.

The Australian Defense Forces has expressed concern over relatively obsolete technology installed in their systems that is overwhelmed by their current needs with regard to security. This has led to the need for the development of highly flexible vehicles to facilitate the deployment of military personnel areas considered inaccessible by conventional means. Flawless integration of this vehicle into the operations of the military is a crucial component, as it saves the military from having to make vast investments to facilitate their implementation. Some of these investments include training of personnel, equipment for integration of the vehicle into the already advanced communication network in use by the military, among others.

  1. Fundamental Inputs to Capability (FIC)

In the context of defense, capability is the ability of the ADF to achieve a particular operational effect, which is a combination of multiple inputs. It is not the sum of those inputs, but the synergy that arises from the way of combination and application of those inputs, that determines the level of capability in a particular context [ CITATION Cap06 l 1033 ]. These fundamental inputs determine the operational soundness and the overall effectiveness of that capability to the operations of the military.

The capabilities proposed to be installed in the ADAVs are;

2.1 Mobile Gun System

The vehicle will be installed with a mobile gun system, usually in the form of a rifled cannon (tank gun) to be used in the event there is an exchange of fire with armed assailants. In order to prevent the advancement of the enemy combatants, the vehicle should be capable of holding its own on the battlefield, to suppress their movement, or in the very least, allow for enough time for further reinforcements to arrive. The safety and survival of the crew in the vehicle is dependent heavily on the efficient and effective operation of this mobile gun system.

Systems Engineering Principles

Figure 2‑1: Firing the Mobile Gun System[ CITATION Mil10 l 1033 ]

      1. Personnel

Most ADAVs can support a crew of between 3 – 8 people, depending on the size. However, every vehicle must have a commander, driver and gunner.

The Commander is the highest ranking officer in the vehicle, and is charged with making the operational decisions in the field. Some of his responsibilities include [ CITATION MyJ16 l 1033 ];

  • Communication with central command with regards to mission information

  • Commanding firepower

  • Ensuring smooth running of tank operations

  • Receiving information collected by crewmen

  • Using initiative to make quick decisions

The driver is tasked with the following duties in the vehicle [ CITATION ADF16 l 1033 ];

  • Tactical driving day and night

  • Servicing tasks on the vehicle, as well as minor repair and adjustments

  • Operate communications equipment installed in the vehicle

The driver needs to be sufficiently skilled to maneuver the vehicle stealthily in the battle field, to gain ground on enemies, or even to make a hasty retreat. The driver’s skills are also paramount in any shock action the ADAV will be involved in, as speed is of the essence.

The gunner is responsible for the following tasks;

  • Loading and aiming armaments

  • Arming and firing machine guns

  • Carrying out general service and repairs to the gun system

The gunner is responsible for any aggressive action the vehicle takes. Once the commander has the ‘all clear’, he instructs the gunner on the targets he is to aim and fire at. As this is the vehicle’s main offense capability, the rifled cannon should be in top- shape condition at all times, with repairs being made when necessary.

      1. Organization

The operation of the mobile gun system is somewhat rigid, with an established hierarchy of command. The commander is the highest ranking official in the vehicle, and as such, all major decisions are made by him. The only flexibility afforded is when one of the crewmen is severely injured or killed, the other crewmen may decide to shift roles to whichever are crucial in that situation.

This fluidity of roles in the ADAV means that all the crewmen must be trained to perform all the tasks occurring in the vehicle, so as to maintain efficient operation in the case of an emergency on the battle field.

      1. Collective training

In order to maintain their battle – readiness, the commander trains with their crew frequently to ensure the operation of the vehicle is flawless during battle. This is done with the help of war simulations, which depict all kinds of situations, to accustom the crew to working in the tank. The environment the crew will work under will depend on the location the vehicle is deployed, with weather varying from hot desert terrain to extremely cold arctic conditions. During war, the crew may be required to be on duty for up to 24 hours when required.

      1. Major systems

The mobile gun system is a major component of the ADAV, as it provides the main offensive capability. The efficacy of this system could be the line between survival and capture, or even death for the crewmen. The vehicle is supplied with heavy artillery and ammunition for use when engaging enemy combatants. Automatic loading may also be provided to ensure that valuable time is not lost trying to reload the system when enemy combatants have engage the crew

      1. Supplies

The tank gun is fitted at the top of the vehicle to ensure its weight is equally distributed. The ADAV is also fitted with counterbalances to ensure the movement of the rifled cannon does not destabilize the vehicle, affecting its aim. The storage space for the ammunition for the gun system is provided for, with larger vehicles able to carry more ammunition. The supplies for the survival of the crew, such as food and water, are also required to be adequate.

In the event of a war, the depletion of supplies could result in the increased vulnerability of the crew, and as such, timely and adequate resupply is required. The period of resupply should be adjusted to the time it takes consumables to be used up or attrition of equipment occurs. Unscheduled supply runs may be done in the case of emergencies, to increase survival of the crew. War scholars are of the opinion that logistics are the greatest single constraint on the conduct of the military [ CITATION Aus02 l 1033 ].

      1. Facilities

In order to ensure the crew are properly accustomed to the operations of the vehicle, sufficient training should be conducted. However, this training needs to happen in a safe environment where the variables of the battle simulations done can be sufficiently controlled, such as a gun range. Mobile resupply stations can be established to provide the vehicle with ammunition reinforcements during war.

      1. Support

The Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle can maneuver its way through various terrain, and as such requires little support in terms of infrastructure. Communication with Central Command is crucial as it allows the commander to make informed decisions over their next course of action. The ammunitions used in the gun system is mostly acquired from private weapons contractors.

      1. Command and Management

There are laid out regulations that govern the operations of the crew in the ADAV. These regulations govern the relationship between the crew members, and are used for conflict resolution. The gunner cannot engage the enemy if the commander does not give him the go ahead, which he can only do if he receives such instructions from Central Command, or if the vehicle is attacked. The driver will not venture into enemy territory unless instructed to do so by the commander. The commander also settles disputed that may arise between crew members. If the disagreement is between the commander and a crew member, the matter may be taken to the colonel or major in charge of the unit.

    1. Bomb Detection Capabilities (Wide Range)

The ADAV will also be equipped with sensors to determine the location of explosives such as bombs and landmines, which are commonly used in the battlefield environment. The timely detection of these explosives could help save the lives of the troops, as well as damage to highly expensive equipment. However, the arms race has resulted in very sophisticated masking devices for explosives and no one method can be used conclusively to detect all kinds of explosives.

Laser- based detectors have proved to be a reliable method to identify explosives concealed, due to their potential for multi- threat and stand- off detection capabilities. This gives it an edge over other existing methods such as imaging and chemical identification, which can only be used for limited threat scenarios. The technology can also be used to detect the presence of explosives at long ranges, allowing the crew of the ADAV to avoid that area and cordon it off so that other troops are aware of the danger and bomb experts can diffuse the situation [ CITATION Wal09 l 1033 ]. The techniques employed in this technology are still under research, but some of those in use by different security agencies include the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

      1. Personnel

The crewmen in the ADAV should be able to operate the equipment used to detect explosive substances on the battle field. In most cases, the personnel manning the equipment will be the commander, so as to direct the driver accordingly. They should be able to distinguish the kind of explosive it is and relay the information to the necessary authorities (the bomb squad) to effectively diffuse the situation. Landmines are a common occurrence in the battle field, and are usually very well hidden. The driver should be careful not to drive the vehicle over explosives that might compromise its structure.

      1. Organization

The operation of the mobile gun system is somewhat rigid, as all the necessary personnel are in a single location. This results in an established hierarchy of command. The commander is the highest ranking official in the vehicle, and as such, all major decisions are made by him. The only flexibility afforded is when one of the crewmen is severely injured or killed, the other crewmen may decide to shift roles to whichever are crucial in that situation. The fluidity of the roles performed in the ADAV, coupled with the high risks involved when on the battle field, all the crew members must be sufficiently aware of the operations of the bomb detection system to ensure they do not put themselves in more danger.

      1. Collective training

There is need for training of the crewmen on the operations of the bomb detection systems. The crew should be able to discern the information being provided to them by the system, so as to make quick and well informed decisions. This will also allow them to relay this information to other troops heading their way of the impending danger. The crew must also be trained in the inner workings of the system, to allow them to make minor adjustments and repairs should the system be damaged in battle. This is ensure the vehicle does not maneuver the battle field ‘blind’. Any advancements in the technologies used in bomb detection that the ADF wishes to implement should be first trained to the personnel before deployment.

      1. Major systems

The ADAV is fitted with a wide array of electronic systems which process the influx of information received while on the battle field. These systems should be able to assess the data, filter it and present the relevant data to the crew members (commander) for them to make the appropriate changes. The introduction of new electronic systems for bomb detection will be cumbersome, and as such, the system will have to be integrated with the already existing systems onboard the vehicle. This will allow the crew convenience in shifting between the systems as is required.

      1. Supplies

The bomb detection system, like other electronic systems, is vulnerable to various factors, such as heat, cold, water, dust and bombardment, which are plenty in the battle field environment. There is therefore, need to ensure that the various parts are effectively maintained and spare parts for the different components available in the case of damage. This will ensure the vehicle’s bomb detection capabilities remain effective, saving lives and property.

      1. Facilities

The development and advancement of bomb detection systems is still ongoing, with new technologies being proposed for application in the battlefield. These advancements cannot take place in the high risk environment of battle, but with the establishment of research facilities in safe areas, most of which are not even close to the warzone. There is also need for facilities where the ADAVs will be brought to be fitted with these technologies to equip them with the detection capability. Unlike the research facilities, these facilities will be required to be at reasonable proximity to the warzone so as to reduce the cost of transportation when the systems are to be installed.

      1. Support

Bomb detection technologies, such as the laser system, require gadgets and equipment that facilitate their operation. For effective operation, these equipment need to be provided. These technologies do not function best when placed inside the vehicle, which has a very thick wall which may hamper the detection, as well as interruption from the other systems in the vehicle which make use of different wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum. Therefore, these systems are installed on the outside of the vehicle, where there is minimum disruption. This means that the housing for these systems needs to be robust enough to withstand the harsh environment of the battlefield.

      1. Command and Management

The technologies used in bomb detection systems is proprietary property, and as such, legal procedures must be followed regarding its purchase, installation and use in military operations. The crew will have to be held accountable for any damages that are caused to the system which are not as a direct result of the activities of battle field. The systems must also be real time, with no delay or buffer time, as time is crucial in the battle field, and any delay could result in insurmountable losses.

    1. Direct Communication Capabilities with the Command Post

The ADAV proposed has a dedicated channel for direct communication with the command post or the Army base communication tower. This consists of a secure radio wave line shielded by the latest technologies from tapping by enemies. The ADAV therefore should have a dongle antennae fitted to its surface to enable it to transmit its signals to the satellite at any point in any terrain.

      1. Personnel

The crewmen in the ADAV should be able to operate the equipment used to relay information between them and the central command post. In most cases, the personnel manning the equipment will be the commander, so as to get instructions on the next course of action. Due to the urgency brought about by warfare, relay of information needs to be fast. The crew should be able to put the information in a reasonably short format so it can be easily relayed.

      1. Organization

The commander mans the communication equipment, sending information collected from the battle field to Central Command and receiving instructions. The commander then directs the other crew members accordingly in order to accomplish the mission at hand.

      1. Collective training

There is need for training of the crewmen on the operations of the communication systems. The crew should be able to discern the information being provided to them by the system, so as to make quick and well informed decisions. The crew must also be trained in the inner workings of the system, to allow them to make minor adjustments and repairs should the system be damaged in battle.

      1. Major systems

The ADAV is fitted with a wide array of electronic systems which process the influx of information received while on the battle field. These systems should be able to assess the data, filter it and present the relevant data to the crew members (commander) for them to make the appropriate changes.

      1. Supplies

The communication system is vulnerable to various factors, such as heat, cold, water, dust and bombardment, which are plenty in the battle field environment. There is therefore, need to ensure that the various parts are effectively maintained and spare parts for the different components available in the case of damage.

      1. Facilities

The continuous relay of information requires the use of various infrastructure, physical, such as telephone masts or wireless, like satellites. Wireless systems are advantageous as there is no physical infrastructure near the battlefield that the enemies can attack to hamper communication. The protection of this infrastructure is of paramount importance.

      1. Support

The communication system requires gadgets and equipment that facilitate its operation. These technologies do not function best when placed inside the vehicle, due to obstruction and interference from other systems in the vehicle. Therefore, these systems are installed on the outside of the vehicle, with robust housing to withstand the harsh environment of the battlefield.

      1. Command and Management

The communication systems are proprietary property, and as such, legal procedures must be followed regarding its purchase, installation and use in military operations. The crew will have to be held accountable for any damages that are caused to the system which are not as a direct result of the activities of battle field. The systems must also be real time, with no delay or buffer time, as time is crucial in the battle field, and any delay could result in insurmountable losses.

    1. Automatic Terrain Adapting Locomotive System

Common vehicles cannot change from one kind of terrain to another, such as between land and water. The ADAV on the other hand, should be well equipped to transition from terrain to terrain without any diminish in the operating capacity. This is important as it allows the vehicle to engage the enemy with the same intensity on either terrain, or also allow for easy retreat procedures before the enemy can get to them. One should also take into account that ingress of water will result in failure of most of the operations of the ADAV as they are computer controlled.

Systems Engineering Principles 1

Figure 2‑2: An ADAV transitioning onto land (TankNutDave.com, 2015)

      1. Personnel

The driver of the ADAV should be able to effectively maneuver it on both land and water. He should be able to switch effectively between the controls, so as not do curtail movement of the vehicle, which could be disastrous. The driver should also be aware of the extents to which he can push the vehicle without damaging its systems, in either medium of transport.

      1. Organization

The commander directs the driver on the best route to follow while on the battlefield. This instruction is based on the information available to him, and the best course of action for the crew. The driver may also provide input on the matter as he is the one who will be required to maneuver them safely across the terrain.

      1. Collective Training

The crew members need to take part in periodic training exercises to determine the effect the change from one terrain to another has on their performance. Continued training will also help the crew get used to the shock accompanying the change of terrain, as well as, any recalibration of the systems in the vehicle. The crew should also be trained on how to fix the locomotion systems whether in water or on land.

      1. Major Systems

The navigation system of the ADAV should be designed such that it remains operational when there is a change in terrain, or adapt to the new terrain. The controls for the system should be identical (similar) for either terrain so that the driver does not need to shift his position when there is a transition in the terrain [ CITATION Gre10 l 1033 ].

      1. Supplies

The rate of depletion of consumables varies with terrain, and as such, the period between supply runs needs to be adjusted. The transition between terrains also increases the load on the system, as new components will need to be launched. Spare parts for repair of the system during damage are also necessary.

      1. Facilities

Civil engineering works, such as bridges, may be required if the vehicle is to traverse through hilly terrain or across deep gouges, where the terrain adaptive locomotion may be rendered moot. Plants producing the spare parts for use in repairs are crucial, as traversing difficult terrain often causes a lot of damage.

      1. Support

The high terrain adaptability of the ADAV due to its amphibious nature means it requires very little in terms of infrastructure to move across battle grounds. In special cases, it may require some civil engineering works, such as bridges, to traverse extreme terrain.

      1. Command and Management

The commander should be aware of the limits of the locomotive system and not subject it extreme terrain, unless necessary, to prevent the damage of a very expensive piece of equipment. Too much risking may result in the vehicle being trapped behind enemy lines which is detrimental to the crew members.

  1. Conclusion

The new ADAVs will give the Australian Defence Forces an increased advantage in navigation over tricky terrain, wide- range bomb threat detection on the battlefield, efficient communication channels between field troops and Central Command, and an effective mobile gun system to fend off enemy attacks. These new technologies aim to address the main concerns raised by the military and are viable options if implemented. The infrastructure required for their operation is minimal to none, integrating easily with existing systems, providing a cost effective solution to the challenges faced by the Australian Military.

  1. Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Air Deployable Amphibious Vehicle

Australian Defence Forces

Australian Defence Organization

  1. References

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[Online] http://www.defencejobs.gov.au/army/jobs/TankCrewman/ [Accessed 13 May 2016].

Australian Defense Organization, 2002. Foundations of Australian Military Doctrine, Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia.

Capability Development Group, 2006. Defence Capability Development Manual, Canberra, Australia: Defence Publishing Service.

Directorate of Public Information, 1996. The Australian Army in Profile, Canberra, Australia: Army, Department of Defence.

Green, D. R., 2010. Coastal and Marine Geospatial Technologies. Dordrecht, Netherlands, Springer.

Markowski, S., Hall, P. & Wylie, R., 2010. Defence Procurement and Industry Policy: A Small Country Perspective, London, UK: Routledge.

Menciassi, A. & Laschi, C., 2014. Bio-Robotics, Pisa, Italy: s.n.

MilitaryToday.com, 2010. M1128 Stryker Mobile Gun System. Available at:
[Online] Firing the Mobile Gun System [Accessed 12 May 2016].

MyJobSearch.com, 2016. Army Tank Commander. Available at:
[Online] http://myjobsearch.com/careers/army-tank-commander.html [Accessed 13 May 2016].

Wallin, S., Pettersson, A., Ostmark, H. & Hobro, A., 2009. Laser- based Standoff Detection of Explosives : A Critical Review. Analytical and Bio- Analytical Chemistry, 395(2), pp. 259-274.