Summery Essay Example

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Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior (OB) refers to the study and application of knowledge on how individuals, people, as well as groups act in organizations (Adetule, 2011). Study behaviors under organizational behavior take a system approach that interprets people-organization relationships based on while group, whole person, completely social system, and whole organization. The aim of organizational behavior is to build healthy relationship through achieving organizational, social, and human objectives (Nelson et al., 2012). Therefore, organizational behavior involves a wide range of aspects such as change, leadership, human behavior, teams, and others.

Evidently, several aspects affect behavior of individuals in an organization including communication, organizational structure and design, performance appraisal mechanisms, job description and work design (Adetule, 2011). Briefly, the way management engages other people in an organizational determines the kind of behavior the employees will depict. The management needs to divide proper and effective communication mechanisms that are all inclusive. The objective should be to make sure all personnel at all levels of management are involved in the communication process (Nelson et al., 2012). The ripple effect of such mechanisms is that there will be less conflict and more understanding within all sectors in an organization. Additionally, organizational structure and design refers to the authority and power sharing in an organization, which determines the order of command. On the other hand, job description and work design is the responsibilities that one is expected to have in a working place as well as the working structure such arrival times. All the aforementioned factors affect the behavior of an individual in a working environment.


Attitudes are moods or emotional status of a person that determines how one reacts in a given scenario. In a working environment, attitudes affect every how performs his duties ranging from senior to junior employees (Nelson et al., 2012). If an employee has positive approach towards work or a specific task, the outcome and general performance will be better that when an employee I shaving a negative attitude. Attitudes play a critical part in helping to develop the prevailing workplace environment that determines employee productivity, morale, and team-building abilities (Nelson et al., 2012). Consequently, it is critical to understand how a negative and positive attitude affects workplace performance based on individual has or group’s behavior.

Notably, attitudes in a working environment affect the behavior of people in a number of ways (Nelson et al., 2012). For instance, the prevailing attitude can add validation to events that occur in a working place. For example if employee have negative attitude, then an announcement of revenue drop could be met with some expectations instead of urgency. On the other hand, if the same happens where employees have positive attitude there is possibility that the announcement will be met with the belief that the business is not performing well and something need to be done. Further, attitude not only creates competition but also enhance competitive environment in an organization, since it makes employee competitive and out-beat one another (Nelson et al., 2012). Other effects of attitudes on the behavior of employees in an organization include creation of innovative ideas, and retention.

Stress is defined as «The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them at work», (Rudani, 2013). Evidently, stress can affect anyone at any level of the business. Recent studies show that work-related stresses are widespread and they are not confined to particular jobs, sectors, or industries (Nelson et al., 2012). Notably stress is not an illness but a state. However, if one’s stress is too excessive and prolonged, it is possible to develop physical and mental illness may develop. Moreover, it is necessary to have well managed and coordinated working environment to reduce work related stress. Admittedly, stress at work also affects the way employees work or relate to each other thus influencing the performance at both individual and group levels (Schein, 2010). In any working environment, an employee may experience stress after realizing that the demand the work assigned is much greater than one’s ability to perform (Adetule, 2011). However, what stress an individual may not be the same to someone else, which depends on an employee’s background and culture, personality, health status, personal circumstances, individual characteristics, skills and experience, gender, ethnicity, age or disability as well as other demands. Importantly, these factors determine one’s behavior at a working place.

Work Teams

For any objective to be met in a workplace there is need to form working teams (Nelson et al., 2012). A working team is a group whose individual efforts lead to a performance greater than the total efforts of an individual input. The objective of a work team is to put joint efforts in getting job done easily with teamwork in what might have been very difficult to do only through an individual effort. Work teams also pay an incredible role in shaping the behavior in an organization. For example, when employees are working in a team, they come to exchange some skills and behaviors, which may or may not be beneficial to the entire organization. If a team is made of bad characters that waste time while underperforming in their respective duties, a good person may find himself following the same direction, which may eventually affects the individual and collective performance in an organization.

Decision Making

Decision-making is the process of finding a solution to given problem (Adetule, 2011). Under the context of an organization, the process of decision-making should be handled in a professional way, which means that all relevant stakeholders should be involved in finding a solution in a certain matter (Koontz & Weihrich, 2010). However, based on the issue at hand, it is also advisable to delegate decision making to a given level of management or group (Cole & Kelly, 2011). In conflict resolution process or policy formulation, participatory decision-making approach is mostly recommended (Nelson et al., 2012). Notably, if employees are excluded in the process of finding solutions to some issues that directly affect them, they are likely to oppose or behaved in a given way. Therefore, management and other senior executives in any company should ensure that they involve employees or other stakeholders when making decision, if situation allows.


Leadership is defined as the ability to influence followers in following a given direction to achieve specific goals (Adeniyi, 2007). On the other hand, followership is the willingness to follow a leader, effectively working as a team, and exhibiting loyalty to the leaders. Leaders influence that follower’s behavior in much way but more so, in the way they behave and show direction (Adeniyi, 2007). However, the behavioral influence depends on the style of leadership as well as other factors in an organization. For example if a leader is democratic and allows followers to participate in decision-making process, they are as well likely to allow their colleagues opportunities to make their views especially when working in a group (Adeniyi, 2007).

Organizational Structure and Design

Organizational structure is the backbone or skeleton of any organization. Organizational structure is the expression of how functions and responsibilities are delegated in an organization as well as how individuals relate to one another (Adetule, 2011). In any organization, the structure of tasks, positions, duties, and tittles should be well stipulated. On the other hand, organization design refers to the working plan. Good design should include how wok is shared, goals to be met, as well as developing groupings and ordering of departments, individuals, and job positions. Based on organization structure or design, employees may behave in a given way (Nelson et al., 2012). For example if an employee is expected to be answerable to two supervisors, conflict may occur between the two supervisors especially when given contradictory orders to the same employee.

Section 2


Motivation refers to an intrinsic enthusiasm of an employee based on a drive to accomplish activities related to work (Cole & Kelly, 2011). Therefore, motivation is an internal drive that makes an employee willing to work and finish any assigned work (Nelson et al., 2012).

The basic theories of motivation include internal, external, and process theory. Internal theory of motivation explains that an individual is motivated by variables that are only fund in oneself, which means that one can only motivate himself or decide to be motivated by other factors (Cole & Kelly, 2011). On the other hand, external motivation argues that an employee is only motivated by factors found in the environment (Snell & Bohlander, 2013). Therefore, an individual does not have control over what should or should not motivate him. Finally, the process theory is of the view that an employee is motivated by the social aspects such as the interaction at work place (Nelson et al., 2012). However, the motivation may take a process before an employee’s reaction to a motivating factor is noted.

Based on the above explanation, there are different ways in which an organization or the management may influence employee’s behaviors in order to motivated them and achieve specific goals in an organization (Miles, 2012). One such ways is the case of Best Buy, where through the application of ROWE, the employee were being paid based on the results wild at the same time reducing the time they were spending at the workplace. The motivating factors here are the reduced time and the increased income. As noted in the case study, there was increased revenue, which meant that employees were also getting much more since they were being paid based on results. On the other hand, most of the employees were able to work from home, thus minimizing the time they spent in their offices.


Negotiation refers to the process of ensuring that people come together to discuss and agree on a given issue (Nelson et al., 2012). As is the case with the process of decision-making, negotiation also requires professional and careful approach. In most cases, negotiations are encouraged to minimize or reduce conflicts in workplaces (French, 2011). Admittedly, sustained conflict can result into disruption to productivity and can as well lead to increased employee turnover rate. Therefore, it is the prerogative of managers and especially the senior management to adopt negotiation as a way of resolving conflicts and disagreements in a working environment.

Understandably, there are different ways in which conflict can occur in an organization (Adetule, 2011). For example is three is no clear clarification of an issue or guidelines, those affected by the issue may oppose any implementation process leading to disagreements. In the case study, Cali Ressler and Jody Thompsons understood that failure to consult and provide clarification of the ROWE strategy would be met with uproar by executives and employees. After recognizing this reality, the two followed three phases before finally implementing the strategy. The first involved auditing the organizational culture and educating the executive on the proposed strategy. This means that they knew that they would have gone nowhere without the support of senior management. After educating the philosophy to the executives, the two managers embarked on explaining the ROWE to the other stakeholders in order to gather more support, which gave them permission to implement the project.


Organizational culture is a term that encompasses many aspects within a working environment. Culture refers to the surrounding environment that shapes individual behavior and the way they work and relate to each other in a workplace. Organizational culture is influenced by various factors such as values, beliefs, mission, behaviors, underlying assumptions, and attitudes that are shared by employees (Nelson et al., 2012). Development of organizational culture can take many years. However, developing a firm organizational culture mostly depends on the founder of an organization, executives, and other managerial staffs since such positions determine the strategic direction of an organization through decision-making process. Some of the indications that illustrate organizational culture include language, symbols, daily work practices, leadership and management styles, and others.

In the case study, Ressler and Thompsons were aware that it was difficult to change the culture of an organization. The only way they could make that possible was through negotiation and consultation with all stakeholders. The ripple effect was that the organizational culture was changed and the ROWE strategy was implemented.


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