Summary about Multiple myeloma Essay Example

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Summary of Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a known B-cell neoplasm that causes proliferation of cancerous cells in the bone marrow leading to overproduction of the monoclonal Para protein. It prevents formation of new bone cells resulting to thin weak bones. The cells that form antibodies become malignant hence making patients prone to many infections (Gertz and Rajkumar, 2013, p. 1; Moehler and Goldschmidt, 2011, pp. 3–17). This essay will summarise the pathophysiology, aetiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of multiple Myeloma.

In multiple myeloma, proliferation of malignant plasma cells leads to destruction of bone tissue and disruption in production of plasma cells. It is caused by abnormalities of oncogenes, and the risk is increased among people exposed to chemicals such as herbicides. Other risk factor are radiation and Human Herpes Virus infection. It has contributed to 10% of blood cancers. Multiple Myeloma is more common in men than women are and only 3% of reported cases were below 40 years (Moehler and Goldschmidt, 2011, pp. 26–31).

Its symptoms may include history of weak bones that developing fractures easily, bone pain, history of opportunistic infections and general body weaknesses. Physical examination may identify palour on the skin, lesions on the skin, ecchymosis, shoulder pain, bone pain and tenderness. Besides, it can present through other systemic diseases such as bleeding or kidney failure (Gertz and Rajkumar, 2013, p. 196; Ravi, 2012, p. 47).

Confirmatory investigations include fluorescence in situ hybridization and cytogenetic analysis. Others include, assessments of urine may reveal monoclonal protein, biopsy of the bone marrow and radiography to identify lesions alongside other regular investigations such as complete blood count, which is likely to show deficient in one or more plasma cells (Moehler and Goldschmidt, 2011, pp. 113–116; Ravi, 2012, pp. 52–78). On diagnosis, progression of multiple myeloma is managed through chemotherapeutic drugs such as Thalidomide. Treatment also targets managing the complication. Survival depends on the size of the mass and associated kidney failure but ranges from one year to 10 years and above (Moehler and Goldschmidt, 2011, p. 189; Ravi, 2012, p. 113).


Gertz, M.A., Rajkumar, S.V., 2013. Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer Science & Business Media.

Moehler, T., Goldschmidt, H., 2011. Multiple Myeloma. Springer Science & Business Media.

Ravi, V., 2012. Contemporary Management of Multiple Myeloma. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd.