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What does Fukuyama’s response reveal about the context in which it was written?

It was in 1989 when an article titled «The end of history” was written. During this period, there were no predictable changes as the threat and the only alternative to liberalism was defeated when the Soviet Union collapsed. According to Fukuyma (1989), great ideological battles that existed between the west and the east came to its end, and there was a triumph of the western liberal democracy. The response is idea based and not events. Fukuyama believes that it was not only the end of the history but also the end of human being’s ideological evolution (Fukuyama, 1989). The response begins without evidence and firm basis but after expressing his argument, Fukuyama refers to the works of Marx, Hegel, and Kojeve. Fukuyama’s response was more of looking for an appropriate term for the situation that happened after the collapse of communism. The response fitted Gulf War conditions after the attack on Kuwait by Iraq when nearly all democratic countries decided to come together to end conditions that were considered not good in the last stage of ideological evolution (Fukuyama, 1989).

Describing a current international issue from a realist perspective?

According to realists who believe in the theory of realism, competitive self-interest is what drives world politics as well as international relations. The belief by realists is that the primary national interest of any given state is majorly based on national security and consequently its survival. For purposes of survival, states are considered unitary actors that are acting in a rational way and their national interest. Morality and values are not important things for Realists who believe their interjection to international relations as the origin of what they call «reckless” commitments that result to the escalation of conflicts beyond the national interest. Realism focuses more on the balance of power. To protect their safety which they consider as a paramount for survival, the realist will always undermine the attempt by other states rising to power. The realist considers a major shift in the balance of power as the catalysis for the international conflict.

Pull a news article and discuss the impact of Marxist thought in the 21st Century (please attach the article to your paragraph)

Karl Marx lived in the nineteenth century, which was very different from the 21st-century life (Sperber, 2013). However, the Marxist thought remains highly relevant in the 21st century. Intellectual conceptions along with the political movements that embody them are more attached to the social structures as well as mutual economic interests. This an area Marxists explained using different royalism that was exhibited in France in 1840s (Grant, 2016). Contemporary politics is a replica of the exact things like in the debate about austerity politics in EU and UK. Marxists idea on the domination and exploitative nature of the free and voluntary market exchanges were very evident at the beginning of industrialization age in Britain. In the 21st century, it remains subtler in more affluent nations and very apparent in countries such as Bangladesh (Sperber, 2013). There are numerous areas in which Marxists has continued to remain relevant in the contemporary world.

Describe the Iraq War from the perspective of the three major theories we have studied so far in this course: Liberalism, Realism and Marxism (3 short paragraphs).

Realism focuses more on power and security. There is the idea of skepticism and while countries consider interdependency a risky practice realist believe it’s the best way (Lieberfeld, 2005). Realism looks at the Iraq’s war to have been propelled by U.S. fear of the geostrategic location of Iraq and unique oil resources, which U.S. thought could be easily deployed against their interest.

As for liberalism, war derives from the internal characteristics of various states
(Danju, Maasoglu, & Maasoglu, 2013). Democratic government and dictatorship type of governance will always lead to war. Liberalism believes the war in Iraq was meant to replace dictatorship with democracies (Lieberfeld, 2005). Advancing the idea of democracy and human rights is considered by liberalism to be crucial to U.S. national security as well as other democratic democracies.

Marxists theory looks at the Iraq war to have been caused by the desire to control new markets and to protect U.S dominance by reducing socioeconomic pressures that originate from the proletariat (Lieberfeld, 2005). Iraq strategic location and its dominance in oil production according to Marxists created fear in US government of losing their potential markets to Iraq.

What is the Washington Consensus?

Washington consensus has constantly been considered an equivalent of neoliberalism and sometimes globalization. The term refers to a set of ten policies that the United States and other international bodies such as financial institutions (WTO, 2016). The consensus is on broad market ideas that are backed up by international organizations such as World Bank, IMF, EU and United States. The ten principles according to World Health Organization include:

Student’s Name
(WTO, 2016)

How successful has the ICC been as a liberal institution of global justice?

International Criminal Court forms part of the long evolution as regard to the customary and treaty law (Milde, Vernon, & Harrington, 2006). Even though ICC is relatively young institution having started its operations in 2003, it has achieved some small success. The passing and rapid ratification of Rome Statute can be cited as one of the successes of ICC that came so quickly. The court had a breakthrough in 2010 when the conference was hosted by Uganda took a given direction from the original UN Security Council and the inclusion of war crimes, genocide, and even war against humanity as some of the many other crimes that can be charged by ICC (Donovan, D. (2012). Human dignity, when looked at from the perspective of international human right, can be considered to be a product of liberalism. It is a show of liberal conception concerning political legitimacy. ICC tends to address the inconsistency in liberal states when it comes to hypocrisy, and unwillingness to observe international laws. According to Donovan (2012), ICC has its challenges but still shows a high level of success as a liberal institution that is serving the whole world.

Write a pro’s and con’s list of the WTO — one for developed nations and one for developing. Then write a paragraph comparing the two positions.




Access to cheap labor (Sibanda, 2015).

Obtaining technological products

Access wider market

Access to broader market

Making them richer than others

Enhanced a more free trade


Privatize their essential services

Dumping of cheap-quality products

Abuses severity of the country

Undermines and penalize developing countries

Does not make them safer

Erosion of culture through trade


Depletes natural resources

World Trade organization has multiple advantages and disadvantages as can be seen from the table
(Sibanda, 2015). However, those that seem to be benefiting more are the developed economies. WTO is making developed countries richer at the expense of the developing countries. Developing countries labors are equally exploited as developed countries consider them as cheap labor (Beck, & Danaher, 1999). Resources in the developing economies are similarly utilized as facilitated by and has seen numerous countries have their valuable resources depleted.


Beck, J. & Danaher, K. (1999). Is the World Trade Organization a blessing or a curse? / CON / Ten Reasons to Protest WTO’s Harmful Effects. SFGate. Retrieved 27 April 2016, from

Danju, I., Maasoglu, Y., & Maasoglu, N. (2013). The Reasons behind U.S. Invasion of Iraq. Procedia — Social And Behavioral Sciences, 81, 682-690.

Donovan, D. (2012). International Criminal Court: Successes and Failures. International Policy Digest. Retrieved 27 April 2016, from

Fukuyama, F. (1989). The end of history? The national interest, (16), 3-18.

Grant, A. (2016). Karl Marx: More Right and more Relevant than ever!. In Defence of Marxism. Retrieved 27 April 2016, from

Lieberfeld, D. (2005). Theories of Conflict and the Iraq War. International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol. 10 (2): 1-22.

Milde, M., Vernon, R., & Harrington, J. (2006). Bringing power to justice?: The prospects of the International Criminal Court. Montreal [Que.: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Sibanda, O. (2015). Towards a Revised GATT/WTO Special and Differential Treatment Regime for Least Developed and Developing Countries. Foreign Trade Review, 50(1), 31-40.

Sperber, J. (2013). Is Marx still relevant?
The Guardian. Retrieved 27 April 2016, from

WTO. (2016). WHO | Washington Consensus. Retrieved 27 April 2016, from