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University of Texas (2012), elements used in print design and they include line, shapes, space, values and texture. In an advertisement the element chosen will depend much on the information which is meant to be portrayed, for instance horizontal line portray calmness and quietness while vertical lines suggest a potential for a movement to occur. Shapes are formed when a line surrounds an area and can be used in advertisements to suggest the intended direction an eye should take. For instance a swirls shape can force a person looking at an advertisement to look at the center of the swirl therefore the most important aspect of that advertisement is supposed to be placed at that point so as to achieve the best results.

Regarding creativity George and Michael (2012), suggests that in marketing people should seek more than a onetime exchange with customers so all adverts must be aimed at a sustainable relationship with customers. Something they will identify with and relate to for a long time, an indication of a superior customer value of any given product must be portrayed in an advert. This also applies to the words and graphics used in an advertisement.

Gedenk et al (2015) sales promotion can be divided into two general groups namely price promotions and non price promotions. Under non price promotions there are supportive and true promotions. Supportive non price promotions are communication oriented in order to inform consumer of a given product. They are called supportive due to the support for other forms of promotions. True non price promotions focuses on a given products brand and not its lowered price. The other type is price promotion with the most common being temporary price reduction, here retailers lower prices and can also use promotional packs with more contents. The other instruments used include loyalty coupons, discounts, and rebates. It can also result in increased brand loyalty and a huge customer base due to brand switching. On the disadvantages, a promotional bump due to brand switching can be good for a manufacturer but not necessarily a retailer whose profitability will lie upon his margins. It is also disadvantageous to a retailer in the long run because promotional sales are fast but soon decreases with time. Retailers are concerned with store loyalty not brand loyalty so this promotional sale may be disadvantageous to them, and in some cases promotion may lead to a reduction in loyalty because of change in customer reference prices.

Carter (2014) emotional loyalty a given consumer looks and prefers a given product regardless of price, convenience while considering a personal connection to it. For example a restaurant which you frequented as a child will be emotionally bound to you. A transactional or behavioral bond occurs with a product for convenience or any other such factors other than emotions, for instance a restaurant closest to home or one with lowest prices.

The relation between marketer and customer has changed over time due to the internet and all digital innovations. An example of this phenomenon occurred in 200 when a change in military enlisting advertisements were changed advocating for more use of the internet and e-recruiting from the traditional use of televisions, posters etc. In its creative concepts a concept from a hit show movie was used in advertisement something which did not happen earlier with encouragement of prospects to visit army webpage in an interactive way. A change in that traditionally the consumers of such information had little options after high school and considered army to be cool, a huge difference from the now technologically savvy youths with more options after high schools (George and Michael, 2012).

(a) Johnson (2015) a marketing objective is aimed at laying out ways of accomplishing delivering and exchanging services and products that will be valuable to a given consumer. A marketing objective will therefore give details why a given product is better than others in the field. While communication objectives on the other hand will use persuasive techniques to target customers by using mass media and digital communications.

Raising customer awareness of brands through sales promotion entirely is not advantageous in some instances. Advertisements, direct marketing and publicity must also be included because sales promotion results from customer data which might leave a personal touch given to a customer from direct marketing to be lost.

A percent of sales approach is widely used. A proportion of your budget for sales is used relative to sales; therefore if one sells more he should invest more in promotion. The other is the profit percentage where a promotion is tied to a given company’s profit. The other method you budget depending on estimations your competition are using on promoting their products. The other method a list of promotions likely to provide an edge over the competition is made then priority is given to the most likely with its cost. The company then brainstorms on what is affordable and at same time most effective to provide an edge (Hercky, 2016).


Carter, B. (2014). Two Types of Loyalties and How To Learn Them. Retrieved from

Gedenk, K., Neslin, S & Ailawadi, K. (2015). Sales Promotion. Cambridge MA: Marketing Science Institute. 1-317

George, E and Michael, A. (2012). Advertising and Promotion. An integrated marketing communications perspective. 6th ED. 1-819

Hercky . (2016). How to Set A Proportional Budget. Retrieved from

Johnson, K . (2015). Marketing vs. Communication Differences. Retrieved from

University of Texas .(2012). Design Elements & Principles. Journal of University of Texas – Austin. 1-28