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3Policies and politics of governing cities

РОLIСY & РОLITIСS ОF GОVЕRNING СITIЕ

no. 2, pp.133-147.8, vol. Critical Policy StudiesNewman, J 2014, ‘Governing the present: activism, neoliberalism, and the problem of power and consent’,

.Newman 2014). Drawing on a feminist framework, Newman analyses the problems demonstrated in governance, power and gender struggles. Presenting the social relations as a political contingency, Newman quotes Stuart Hall regarding hegemony whereby the political processes are seen as hegemonic projects which are not a state of being but ongoing work of revision. In her view, she analyses the present arguments on feminism as inadequate in providing agency that the feminism is supposed to bring with it. She further argues that the existing critique on feminism overstate power and the neoliberalism as a whole (Newman 2014)Newman’s argument centres on the crises evident in the financial sector which contribute to the inappropriate cutbacks on the women (

.Newman 2014)By discussing the various case studies she included in her research, Newman presents three kinds of political labour which are engaged in by those in power. These includes damaging governments efforts through cutbacks, forging new conversations within the public that lead to discursive government repertoires and setting up new alliances to generate new ways of politics performance (

. This, she argues, is a chance availed through the contradictions and tensions within the political processes that open up new courses for progressive practice.Cooper 2015)Moreover, the article sets new dimension of looking at public governance. Newman does this through proposing for creating a close understanding of public governance through embracing political discourse and organisational studies (

. She does this by suggesting pathways like political, social and cultural theorising which allow the public to get meaning like it has been evidenced in Britain.Cooper 2015)She further approaches the accounts of governance through avoiding universalising tendencies that are sometimes evident in political philosophies that are radicalised (

no. 1, pp.1-35.77, vol. Progress in PlanningBailey, N 2012, ‘The role, organisation and contribution of community enterprise to urban regeneration policy in the UK’,

.Bailey2012). These are the type of organizations that usually come from the local community at the neighborhood level involving both private and public sectors working in partnership so as to provide broad services to satisfy economic, environmental and social needs (Bailey 2012)In this article, Bailey explains and investigates deeply the constitution, organization, and delivery of services that is usually community-based that are usually referred to as enterprises in the United Kingdom (

. Beck & Vogler 2016). Bailey demonstrates the three systems of economy using the case studies in his research. These includes private dimension which are mostly profit oriented, public service dimension that focusses on planned provision and self-help dimension that creates mutual social purpose by integrating both private and public systems of economy (Bailey2012)The author majorly focuses on the way these organizations contribute to local generation strategies so as to generate social income and also facilitate civil society promotion in general (

.Bailey2012). This is aimed at illustrating the range, level of benefits and diversity of the sector it can deliver. Although the UK political economy is moving toward community self-help group and less state intervention there is a good indication from the USA community development corporations that the UK community enterprises might be an important segment in civic community building that is trending presently (Beck & Vogler 2016). In addition, the author provides five case studies presented through a number of community enterprises that were established at different times besides being developed in different locations and regimes that were funded differently (Bailey2012)The author provides an answer that relates institutions and management bodies and how they engage organisational strategies besides contributing to regeneration strategies that are locally baked compared to acquired strategies and how they affect acquiring and management of assets (

Similarities and differences in their approaches

One of the similarities evident in between Bailey’s and Newman’s articles is that both the articles are trying to explain governance and political organization basically in urban centers and community-based (Beck & Vogler 2016). Bailey proposes for community based enterprises that allow the people to have access to the economic assets just like in public ownership without being restrained by cultural assumptions and traditional perspectives. Similarly, Newman argues for inclusion of social and cultural theories in public governance that will give meaning to rather meaningless situations in governance (Bailey 2012). Besides, the authors want to show that there is a range of crucial benefits where the control is brought to the public rather than being withheld at the top of the political leadership.

The major difference presented between the two articles and approaches adopted by Newman and Bailey is that Bailey concurs with the points of views presented by other literature reviews on community enterprise management. This is seen where Bailey does not provide a counter argument on the perspective presented by Aiken et al. on importance of assets being placed on the use and not ownership (Bailey 2012).

On the contrary, Newman presents a different perspective on the feminism theory counteracting what has popularly been adopted by other researchers (Newman 2014). She proposes for using the tension within the political systems to gain knowledge and find new directions in the public governance contrary to what other researchers view the political powers as a state that should be accepted.

What these readings add to one’s understanding of the themes and concepts covered in essential readings

Through presenting a new dimension in meaning to existing theories, one gets to learn the essence of critiquing the existing governance through reshaping the cultural, political and social theories. Basing on the analysis by Newman, it is evident that changing the perspectives on feminist theory allows one to understand what contradictions exist within the governance system and recommend possible mitigation means. This concurs with what is proposed by Walliser 2013, who presents a case study in Spain where public face has been changed due to the protests and crises that have been experienced over time.

Considering the discussion by Walliser 2013, it is evident that the mobilisation in public has changed from the traditional means to more technology-based through virtualisation like social media and other communication technologies. Walliser 2013, proposes for gentrification as a means to give direction and sense to a rather rampant social networking that is taking over mobilisation in Madrid. Moreover, Walliser 2013, presents the transformation as important to portraying the city as innovative and modern which utilises educated and unemployed youths that are becoming self-employed. This is similar to what Newman proposes since considering an open mind to neo-liberalisation will create space for people to demonstrate understanding of the requirements in the public leadership rather than being misguided by the prejudice that the political sphere cannot be changed (Newman 2014).

The articles help one to understand the alternative ways of making a significant impact on the promotion of development and services delivery in a community besides making the community enterprises work conveniently using different methods and strategies to evaluate and promote their performance (Bailey2012). In addition, one is able to understand how the community enterprises have been run in different countries so as to support and predict the outcome of its adoption in the UK (Bailey2012).

Moreover, the articles present alternatives to service delivery within communities. Wagenaar et al 2015, presents the phenomenon in which service delivery requires transformation in order to improve the democratic life quality. As a matter of fact, Wagenaar et al 2015, demonstrates ways and means to mitigating the existing problems in civic enterprises through analysing the situation in Europe where most of the European countries are transforming to create sustainable environments like playgrounds to larger institutions like energy sustainability like in water management.

This theme is similar to what has been discussed by Bailey who presents the various organisation and representation means that lead to successful management of the civic enterprises (Bailey 2012). Though Bailey does this analysis by citing examples from all over the world, the article serves to demonstrate the essence in transforming the social and leadership structure to raise the quality in service delivery. The articles help in understanding how different methods are used in urban mobilization and actions that are transformative in city spaces that are public (Newman 2014). How different political actions in evolution related to different social and cultural ideas and movements that are used in governance through giving deep analysis and theories to enhance the application and understanding of the themes and concepts (Newman 2014).

References

no. 1, pp.1-35.77, vol. Progress in PlanningBailey, N 2012, ‘The role, organisation and contribution of community enterprise to urban regeneration policy in the UK’,

Beck, A & Vogler, J 2016, ‘The evolution of economic systems: varieties of capitalism in the global economy Barry Clark’.

, p.20.Jotwell: J. Things We LikeCooper, D 2015, ‘Entering the Spaces of Power’,

no. 2, pp.133-147.8, vol. Critical Policy StudiesNewman, J 2014, ‘Governing the present: activism, neoliberalism, and the problem of power and consent’,

no. 4, pp.557-585.16, vol. Planning Theory & PracticeWagenaar, H, Healey, P, Laino, G, Healey, P, Vigar, G, Riutort Isern, S, Honeck, T, Beunderman, J, van der Heijden, J & Wagenaar, H 2015, ‘The transformative potential of civic enterprise’,

no. 3, pp.329-350.41, vol. Policy & PoliticsWalliser, A 2013, ‘New urban activisms in Spain: Reclaiming public space in the face of crises’,