Student Number Essay Example

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Enhancing Energy efficiency and Promotion of Clean Energy in China

Introduction

Environmental concerns have been raised over the enormous greenhouse gas emission that has been threatening the global natural atmosphere1. The issue of greenhouse gas emissions can be traced back to the years of industrialization. During the years of industrialization, coal was the major source of energy used to power machines in industries2. Later, another more efficient fossil fuel was discovered that had more calorific level than coal. According to OECD, oil and natural gas took over the global energy sector3. However, the polluting effects of the fossil fuel were still alarming4. Once greenhouse gases are mitted to the atmosphere, they take a long time to breakdown. Global warming is an effect brought about by greenhouse gases. Other effects like climatic changes and depletion of the ozone are a result of greenhouse gas emission.

According to Baer, there is enough proof that the global climatic conditions have changed and keep on changing5. Greenhouse gas emission is responsible for these climatic changes. Many countries have tried to generate measure to reduce the rates of GHG6. The most common known initiative is the Kyoto protocol that required all signatory countries to cut down GHG emission. However, some of the major contributors did not commit to the protocol. The Kyoto protocol did not manage to bring all countries together in an attempt to commit to reducing GHG emission. Currently countries take part to reduce GHG emission through signing of treaties, signing of protocols, developing environmental laws, investing in green technology and green energy. China for many years faced a challenge of excess use of coal that emits enormous GHG7. The rate at which greenhouse gas is emitted from China threatens the business environment globally with United States of America affected largely. China has tried to create efforts that can help reduce the rates of greenhouse gas emission.

Actions to reduce greenhouse gas emission.

There are several strategies China can adopt to reduce the Greenhouse gas emission8. This section discusses the measures, which include setting emission reduction targets, development policies, voluntary approach and introduction of economic measures.

Set national targets

The government of the people’s republic of China needs to acknowledge that global greenhouse gas chokes the environment9. It is a known fact that the major cause of GHG can be traced to fossil fuels used for running many engines and machines in factories10. Many factories in China have been using coal as the major source of fuel for industries. Coal is cheap and easily accessible in the country. The country should establish a means by which the use of these fossil fuels can be reduced11. The country should also develop means of sequestrating the already chocking carbon four-oxide gas12. An important way to do this is by setting national goals and targets that aim at reducing greenhouse gas emission. The national targets should aim at enhancing the use of green energy to replace fossil fuel. According to Zhang et al., the industrial sector should use renewable energy that include hydropower, wind power, tidal energy or nuclear energy13. National environmental policies should have specific goals and period for the achievement. For instance, a goal to reduce the number of public commuter vehicles should set the number to be reduced, the time for the predicted reduction and the means.

Develop policies

Targets are not enough to ensure that GHG emission rates are reduced in China. China has to develop a legal framework that can help in environmental enforcement14. It is such enforcements that will enable the People’s Republic of China realize its Goals. An environmental policy framework is an important instrument that can help realize environmental targets. Policies can be strengthened to become laws entrenched in the constitutional. By entrenchment, the legal instrument will provide a strong basis for public interest litigation to matters pertaining to GHG emission15. In addition, policies are important instruments that can help determine other useful instruments for pollution control, such as economic instruments.

Develop economic instruments.

According to OECD, economic instruments have been used globally in an attempt to control GHG emission16. Economic instruments, such as carbon taxes have been used in many countries to impose a levy on carbon emitted17. The efficiency of such taxes in reducing GHG emission, however, cannot be determined18. China has to develop quality economic instruments that will discourage use of fossil fuels while at the same time encourage use of renewable energy19. More levies can be imposed on fossil fuel product to discourage the use of such fuel. Taxes can include carbon energy taxes and tax on other gases, such as chlorofluorocarbon. While doing this, the government should subsidize the cost of production in the green energy sector, such as production of solar generators, hydropower, and wind power20. China can develop an institution that facilitates and funds innovation in the green technology sector. According to OECD, the government should establish ways to fund green technology21.

Relevance of institutional framework

To make all the instruments work well in reduction of GHG emission, the government should establish an institution that will oversee the processes aimed at achieving national environmental goals22. A government formed institution should be responsible for monitoring and evaluation of the progress in GHG emission reduction23. The institution should also assess the effectiveness of the government policy instruments24. A competent institution will ensure coordination among various government sectors that can enhance achievement of national environment goals, as well as the business goals.

Voluntary approaches

The policy makers in China should understand that some goals cannot be achieved by strict rules and regulation. Voluntary approaches is an important instrument to reduce GHG emission25. The method has been used in many countries since early 1990’s26. The approaches can be categorized into four. Companies can engage unilateral commitment to reduce on the use of fossil fuel and other gaseous wastes responsible for Global warming27. The industrial sectors can also develop mutual agreements with the stakeholders to reduce on greenhouse gas emission28. Alternatively, the government and the industrial sector can sign mutual agreements to reduce GHG. The Government of China may develop more soft approach by creating programs that require voluntary participation to cut on GHG emission.

Conclusion

For many years, Greenhouse gas raised many concerns globally with diverse sources of GHG around the globe. The problems relating to emission of GHG started back in the vibrant years of industrial development. The developed countries did not predict the impacts of gaseous wastes emitted. It was later that the concept of GHG became real and many countries around the world raised concerns. Several global initiatives like treaties and protocols have failed due to lack of full participation. The main Greenhouse gases known are carbon (IV) oxide, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrogen compounds, and have a potential of causing global warming, as well as depleting the ozone. The People’s Republic of China faces the same menace of GHG emission that threatens the business environment. The government has a task to develop means that will reduce GHG emission. The government can develop legal instruments, economic instruments and or soft instruments. The instruments developed should target all the emitters of GHG. In addition, the Government of China should develop a well-defined institutional framework, which will oversee the progress of the government’s GHG control instruments.

References

Baer P 2015, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Global Common Resources. Retrieved from <

>http://stephenschneider.stanford.edu/Publications/PDF_Papers/15-Ch15(393-408).pdf

White K.H 2014, Fossil Fuels: The Moral Case. Texas Public Policy Foundation. Retrieved from

<>http://www.texaspolicy.com/library/doclib/2014-06-RR03-FossilFuelsTheMoralCase- KathleenWhite-ACEE.pdf

OECD 2003, Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned:Workshop Report. OECD and IEA information Paper.

<>http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/tf1/2956442.pdf

Neumayer E 2000,
Commentary In defence of historical accountability for greenhouse gas emissions. Ecological Economics vol 33 pp 185-192. Retrieved from <>http://www.lse.ac.uk/geographyAndEnvironment/whosWho/profiles/neumayer/pdf/Arti cle%20in%20Ecological%20Economics%20(Greenhouse%20gas%20emissions).pdf

Cooper R.N 1997, A Treaty on Global Climate Change: Problems and Prospects. Working Paper Series pp 97 -9. <>http://www.environment.harvard.edu/docs/faculty_pubs/cooper_treaty.pdf

Legget J.A 2011, China’s Greenhouse Gas, Emission and Mitigation Policies. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service 7-5700

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41919.pdf

Zhang D, Liu J & Bingjun L 2014, Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from theGreat Smog of 1950s in LONDON. Sustainability Journal vol
6, pp5322-5338. Retrieved from

<>http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/6/8/5322/pdf

Wei et al 2011, Energy Economics: CO2 Emissions in China. Springer Science & Business Media

Sung et al 2012, Frontiers of Energy and Environmental Engineering. CRC Press.

Braatz et al 2013, Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories: Interim Results from the U.S. Country Studies Program. Springer Science & Business Media

1Baer P 2015, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Global Common Resources.

2White K.H 2014, Fossil Fuels: The Moral Case. Texas Public Policy Foundation.

3
OECD 2003, Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned:Workshop Report. OECD and IEA information Paper

4
Neumayer E 2000, Commentary In defence of historical accountability for greenhouse gas emissions. Ecological Economics vol 33 pp 185-192

5
Baer P 2015, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Global Common Resources

6
Cooper R.N 1997, A Treaty on Global Climate Change: Problems and Prospects. Working Paper Series pp 97 -9.

7
Zhang D, Liu J & Bingjun L 2014, Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from theGreat Smog of 1950s in LONDON. Sustainability Journal vol
6, pp5322-5338

8White K.H (2014). Fossil Fuels: The Moral Case. Texas Public Policy Foundation.

9
Baer P 2015, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Global Common Resources. Retrieved from <

http://stephenschneider.stanford.edu/Publications/PDF_Papers/15-Ch15(393-408).pdf

10
OECD 2003, Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned:Workshop Report. OECD and IEA information Paper.

11
Legget J.A 2011, China’s Greenhouse Gas, Emission and Mitigation Policies. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service 7-5700

12
Zhang D, Liu J & Bingjun L 2014, Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON. Sustainability Journal vol 6, pp5322-5338

13
Zhang D, Liu J & Bingjun L 2014, Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON. Sustainability Journal vol 6, pp5322-5338

14
Zhang D, Liu J & Bingjun L 2014, Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON. Sustainability Journal vol 6, pp5322-5338

15
OECD 2003, Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned:Workshop Report. OECD and IEA information Paper.

16
OECD 2003, Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned:Workshop Report. OECD and IEA information Paper.

17Cooper R.N 1997, A Treaty on Global Climate Change: Problems and Prospects. Working Paper Series pp 97 -9.

18
Wei et al 2011, Energy Economics: CO2 Emissions in China. Springer Science & Business Media

19
Legget J.A 2011, China’s Greenhouse Gas, Emission and Mitigation Policies. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service 7-5700

20
Braatz et al 2013, Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories: Interim Results from the U.S. Country Studies Program. Springer Science & Business Media

21
OECD 2003, Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned:Workshop Report. OECD and IEA information Paper.

22
Legget J.A 2011, China’s Greenhouse Gas, Emission and Mitigation Policies. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service 7-5700

23
OECD 2003, Policies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Industry Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned:Workshop Report. OECD and IEA information Paper.

24
Cooper R.N 1997, A Treaty on Global Climate Change: Problems and Prospects. Working Paper Series pp 97 -9.

25
Zhang D, Liu J & Bingjun L 2014, Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from theGreat Smog of 1950s in LONDON. Sustainability Journal vol
6, pp5322-5338

26Sung et al 2012, Frontiers of Energy and Environmental Engineering. CRC Press.

27
Legget J.A 2011, China’s Greenhouse Gas, Emission and Mitigation Policies. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service 7-5700

28White K.H 2014, Fossil Fuels: The Moral Case. Texas Public Policy Foundation.