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Postmodernism is often used as a general term to describe the changes, tendencies and /or developments that have occurred in philosophy, literature, art, architecture, and music during the last half of the twentieth century.” EVELYN ARIZPE AND MORAG STYLES, 2009. According to Dresang 14 “connectivity, interactivity and access in the digital world explain the fundamental changes taking place” in current children’s and young-adult literature.”

Arizpe and Styles focus on the behavior of the children ranging in age from five to eleven years old. This include their articulation of intertextual references and per formative physical responses.

Arizpe and Styles (230) identify sixteen types of language, this include justifying opinions, demonstrating awareness of met cognitive implications, indicating awareness of the author’s intent and analogizing.

This kind of responses indicate that students are engaging with the text in strategic

and critical ways and have a desire to examine the relationship between the imaginary world portrayed and their own world. According to Arizpe and Styles (245) repeated and sustained exposure to the picturebooks and the discussions around them, including multiple passes through the books were partly responsible for the sophistication of the students’ commitment.

Arizpe and Styles continued to explain that children responded to postmodern picturebooks,

inspiring us with their enthusiastic and insightful interpretations of multimodal texts, especially as they construed spiritual, intellectual content, emotional and aesthetic.

Contemporary picturebooks are highly planned to give the reader a sense of control. Emmy Award winner and writer for Sesame Street and the Cartoon network, produced a highly interactive picturebook with graphics in new forms and formats. The words and pictures reach new levels of synergy, i.e., words become pictures and pictures become words.


According to Arizpe and Styles, studies shows that it support the findings of Children Reading Pictures such as the cognitive skills ,sophisticated negotiations, and the enjoyment of the challenges that are part of the process of reading text and image in picturebooks.


Arizpe, Evelyn, and Morag Styles. 2003,Children Reading Pictures: Interpreting

Visual Texts. London: Routledge Falmer,.

Dresang, E. T., & McClelland, K. 1999, Radical Change: Digital age literature and learning. Theory into Practice, 38, 160-167.