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9USE OF PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS

An ethical analysis of the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport

Introduction

The use of drugs in sports is unethical behaviour. Sports need to be associated with talent and hard work. The use of drugs in sports so as to achieve performance makes sports unethical activity. Drugs act as stimulants for most sportsmen. This is the reason it is being used. The sports agencies are now in campaigns to use anti-doping tests so as to introduce sanity n the sporting activities. This paper is going to discuss theories such as Kant theory, utilitarianism theory, rights theory and ethical relativism theory in relation to the use of drugs in sports.

Justice theory

According to the theory, individuals are subject to penalties and punishments in the event they engage in wrong doing. Procedural justice advocate for fair competition, agreements, procedures and practices. The use of drugs by some athletes needs to attract punishment as this is not justified. It is unprofessional to use drugs so as to get food performance. Sports need to be a fair competition. This makes use of drugs to be a punishable practice so as to curb the practice the act ought to attract heavy punishments so as to eliminate future recurrence.

Commutative justice advocates for fairness in competition. This means that there will be absence of justice in the event sports is now a drugs field. A drug is not an incentive in performance. It is unfair to get benefits in unjustified means. The use of drugs presents new forms of inequality which ought to be corrected with a sports policy. Sports bring with it benefits in the society. This in most cases attracts recognition among peers. The use of drugs will influence peers to associate performance and societal success to drugs(Cooper,2012).

Principles of justices require us to reward people according to effort, ability, merit, productivity, and societal contribution. Efforts of sportsmen deserve recognition. When sportsmen perform well, he/she gives contribution to the society. O the other hand, when sportsmen engage in drugs they taint the society name. Distributive justice requires justified wages and sports rewards which protect the public welfare. Drugs are known to ruin lives of most of youths. There is need to curb the menace of using drugs in sports so as to make it an ethical activity.

John Rawls offers an alternative of free choice, fairness and equality with no necessity which requires social utility. Rationality requires universality of principles, respect for all persons and acceptable practices. Ignorance is no defence for use of drugs in sports. There s need to be fully aware that use of drugs so as to be the best in sports is unfair and against principles of natural justice. Veil of ignorance argues that all of us are rational and it is I the nature of human beings to advance their own interest

Life alternatives need sportsmen to play safe in everything they do. Justice principles regulate the distribution of social advantages. The absence of drugs will provide equal opportunities to everyone in the society. Personal decisions have consequences. Government policy will define distribution of gains from sports industry. The policy will also serve to protect public image from being tainted by the use of performance enhancement drugs. The use of drugs offers unequal access to resources.

It is worthwhile to note that drug testing and surveillance need to have privacy considerations. The linking of drugs to performance needs not to be criminalized. Sportsmen need not to be subjected to bullying, discrimination in the name of drug testing. There is need for professionalism in the conducting of drug tests among sportsmen. It is the responsibility of govern to agencies to put in place policies which limit the use of drugs. This will instill discipline and hard work so as to achieve performance. Sports agencies ought to exercise degree of surveillance to curb use of drugs. The use of drugs is representative of egoist’s characters in the society.

Theory of utilitarianism

This theory focuses on how an individual can maximize justice but not how to distribute justice in the society. Desires for money and foods need to be to the good of all. There is a moral obligation to commit our acts to the god of all not just self interest. The theory defines wrong and good conduct in the society. Actions have moral values. The use of drugs is inherently bad. Sports act requires individuals to consider end of their actions but not necessary means. A person can use drugs to win a sport. But in the long run, once the relevant authority realizes the use of drugs, they will snatch the award away and impose a fine on him. Self determination defines freedom. A person is free when he is reasonable in what he does. Business corporations need to uphold moral practices (Gerdes 2008).

We are all bound by morals and ethics. Sportsmen are not exemptions when it comes to morals in the society. We should respect law enforcing agencies at all times. A reason guides our actions and our actions will reflect the common good of all in the society. Drugs will meet short term expectations. Long term objectives will be compromised as users of drugs will be seen as socially misfit. Use of drugs is illegalized in ethical societies. Moral diversity requires tolerance of practices around the world. There is divergence of opinions of what is acceptable in a society. The sports sponsorship will be curtailed once the corporate realize that the sports person has been engaging in drugs .Corporate have been intensive in doing their marketing through sports. It I unethical to advertise drugs using sports. This will tempt sportsmen from using drugs so as to be effective in their performance. Smoking affects the healthy of sports personality. This is because it will cause ailments such as liver cirrhosis which will eventually curtail sports careers.

Kant theory

Kant believes that ethics are derived from reason not from God, human authority, communities, desire and consequences. The idea of duty defines morality. Sportsmen should impose duty on themselves without following inclinations or feelings of government imposition. The principle of reason will aid sportsmen to discover correct moral principle. They will hesitate from using drugs and become rational agents and ambassadors of good morals. The use of drugs makes sports an immoral venture and this s a bad image. A sport is a career which requires morals and not drugs for one to excel. Good actions in sports need not because of consequences but logical reason. Morality is equal to reason. Robinson (2009) argues that morality laws require consistency, universality and priori in sports activities.

A wish to perform well in sports should be coupled with hard working. Hard work is a virtue and attributes of moral value. Individual desires to perform well needs to consider reason and morality of their actions. Kant theory proposes imperatives which require universal (consistent), respect for human beings and autonomy of rational people.

According to Robinson (2009), when people engage in drugs, they try to exempt themselves from moral obligations and try to be unwilling to grant privileges to others.non universal practices makes sportsmen to try to lie whenever they feel like it is necessary to achieve their self desires. Subjective rules guide actions of sportsmen. Such maxims require them not to cheat on sports agencies. Use of drugs represents a form of lying to senior authority. Use of drugs is a form of cheating in sports. This will attract a heavy penalty in case the user proves to be guilty. Successful cheating through use of drugs will distort the ethical process of reasoning and presence of an ethical society.

The use of drugs to achieve performance is universally condemned around the world. Drugs negate universalisability of sports ethics. Principles of engaging in fair play will guide the sports industry. These will discourage individuals from temptations of using drugs so as to achieve success. The use of drugs is an incoherent concept in sports (Rosen 2008).

According to Derse & Wilson (2001) Sports act requires individuals to consider end of their actions but not necessary means. A person can use drugs to win a sport. But in the long run, once the relevant authority realizes the use of drugs, they will snatch the award away and impose a fine on him. Self determination defines freedom. A person is free when he is reasonable in what he does. Business corporations need to uphold moral practices (Robinson, 2009).

The challenge of ethical relativism

There are wide attempts to defend ethical standards in sports. Our practices will define willingness to uphold ethical standards and norms in the society. Ethical relativism argues that ethics ifs defined by culture. Sports ethics will stop use of drugs as this is unethical. Sports standards are subject to oral judgments. The current trend of using drugs represents the prevailing decay in the society. There is a self desire to achieve success with use of short cut. Drugs act as stimulants when used. The abuse of drugs represents immorality among the sports men (Egendorf 2007).

It is impossible to permit everything and anything. Use of drugs is illegalized in ethical societies. Moral diversity requires tolerance of practices around the world. There is divergence of opinions of what is acceptable in a society. Core human values include fairness, respect for others, honesty, responsibility and compassion. Communication, integrity and excellence will define ethics in sports (Derse &Wilson, 2001).

There is a challenge when world cultures do overlap. A good case study is in the international Olympics sports. Moral values and principles are applicable from any location in the world. To determine, ethical dimensions in sports we need to consider drug consequences, respect and justice for all persons in a society. Global and domestic governance of sports requires a code of conduct. There are rising cases of sports men abusing drugs in the name of desire to achieve performance.

Rights theory

Right is an obligation of duty in a society and permits a person to do what he feels is morally accepted. We have positive and negative rights. Regulation of rights in a sport will promote ethical and moral practices. People have a right a safety. Drugs endanger the life of sportsmen. There is natural health concern among most people. We cannot distinct rights from legislation. Rights need to be regulated by laws and ethics in a society. There are no justified grounds of infringing privacy in the name of fighting use of drugs.

The absence of drugs will provide a safe environment to further sports career. Rights of individuals need not infringe right of others in the society. We have a moral obligation to respect rights of others in the society (Beshel &Taylor 2001).

Corporates need to protect rights in the society. For instance, the sponsorship which is offered to sportsmen will be subject to drug free practices. The sponsorship will be curtailed once the corporate realize that the sports person has been engaging in drugs .Corporate have been intensive in doing their marketing through sports. It I unethical to advertise drugs using sports. This will tempt sportsmen from using drugs so as to be effective in their performance.

Conclusion

Common kinds of moral standards include justice, utility, rights and justice. Ethical judgments are made in line with the prescribed code of conduct. The sports industry is currently under attack with the rise in use of drugs among people. Ethics will improve performance of sports industry. This is in reference to fair competition and fair approach to the privacy of lives of sports people. There are no justified grounds of infringing privacy in the name of fighting use of drugs.

To determine, ethical dimensions in sports we need to consider drug consequences, respect and justice for all persons in a society. Global and domestic governance of sports requires a code of conduct. There are rising cases of sports men abusing drugs in the name of desire to achieve performance. The use of drugs is an incoherent concept in sports. A sport is a career which requires morals and not drugs for one to excel. Good actions in sports need not because of consequences but logical reason. Morality is equal to reason. Morality laws require consistency, universality and priori in sports activities.

References

Beashel, P., Sibson, A., & Taylor, J. (2001). The world of sport examined. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Cooper, C. E. (2012). Run, swim, throw, cheat: The science behind drugs in sport. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Derse, E., & Wilson, W. (2001). Doping in elite sport: The politics of drugs in the Olympic movement. Champaign [u.a.: Human Kinetics.

Egendorf, L. K. (2007). Performance-enhancing drugs. San Diego, CA: ReferencePoint Press.

Gerdes, L. I. (2008). Performance enhancing drugs. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Robinson, T., & Epshteyn, M. G. (2009). Performance-enhancing drugs. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub. Co.

Rosen, D. M. (2008). Dope: A history of performance enhancement in sports from the nineteenth century to today. Westport, Conn: Praeger.