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Strategies for effective teaching of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) Essay Example

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1. Project Title

Strategies for effective teaching of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH)

Table of Contents

11. Project Title

32. Project Summary

33. Project Proposal

33.1 Background Literature

43.1.1 Cued speech (CS)

53.1.2 Visual Phonics (VP)

63.1.3 Auditory cues (AC)

7Research Aims 3.2

8Significance and Expected Outcomes 3.3.

84. Methodology

115. Ethical considerations

13Reference list:

2. Project Summary

The proposed study seeks to encourage educators to adopt consistent strategy for teaching children with DHH. The findings will encourage progress in teaching DHH children by intensifying the need to use teaching phonics and phonemic awareness. It will also ensure that teaching grapheme-phoneme awareness to DHH children has failed to be given a priority, despite the fact that it can bring gains in reading, as well as reading comprehension. It will also add to the significant research linked to the reading acquisition of deaf individuals.

It is expected that speech reading and visual phonics or cued speech are the two key strategies with the potential to provide DHH students with access to effective learning strategies. Hence, instruction rooted in the phonics and phonemic awareness is certainly apposite for DHH students. Still, there is a need for comprehensive research and a rethinking of the existing educational practices to apply visual strategies in enhancing teaching in schools.

This research study will have a significant impact on the ability of DHH student to assimilate as well as to communicate their awareness of grapheme-phoneme relationships. Therefore, the research question proposed is:

“What strategies can be used for effective teaching of children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH)?”

3. Project Proposal

3.1 Background Literature

Past and current strand of literature on DHH children’s literacy acquisition have failed to suggest consistent strategies for DHH students. A review of literature is provided for cued speech (CS), visual phonics (VP), and auditory cues (AC).

3.1.1 Cued speech (CS)

Tucci’s et al. (2014) review of current studies on the strategies for teaching children who are deaf or hard of hearing revealed that visual phonics prevailed as the most effective strategy for teaching the grapheme–phoneme relationship to children who are deaf or hard of hearing. The researchers further elaborated that use of hand signals for teaching letter sounds and letters, to the DHH children was possible through the practice of using the cued speech, a system that uses speech reading, in addition to an approved set of eight hand shapes, and four movements, and four positions. More researchers have also recently examined the relevance of cued speech. In an earlier study, Miller (2012) investigated the processes marking the development of spoken phonological awareness in DHH children. Similarly, Tucci et al. (2014) was of the view that on using cued speech together with hand shapes to demonstrate positions and consonants illustrating vowels, it makes it easy for a listener to understand the lip patterns.

Like Grimes et al. (2007), Miller’s (2012) findings had showed that the DHH students who were at variance as regards the level of basic communication mode and language abilities were likely to gain from explicit instruction due to phonological awareness. This authentic results show that DHH children are highly likely to experience development of phonological awareness (such as rhyme and phoneme segmentation) regardless of the delays in language development or age when taught with reading curricula designed for the more advantaged hearing children even if combined with the cued speech for additional visual support.

Miller’s (2012) findings and discussion reflect that of an earlier study by Grimes et al. (2007), who concentrated on the use of visual cues. His findings showed the similar results to later studies by Miller (2012) and Tucci’s et al. (2014). In particular, Grimes et al. (2007) addressed the issue of ‘‘language approach’’ data, which it observed to be a significant construct for exploring the learning outcomes of DHH children. On the subject of oral approaches, Grimes et al. (2007) defended the educational significance of applying visual cues to promote language acquisition in DHH children. Grimes et al. (2007) made the critical remark that the degree to which the activities associated with gathering visual information emanated from the teacher’s face and lips. This, in their view, however depended on the capacity of the visual cues to hinder optimisation of what is auditioned.

3.1.2 Visual Phonics (VP)

The use of visual phonic has provided a significant area for study among the DHH researchers, among them Tucci et al. (2014). In their study of effective teaching strategies for DHH children, Tucci et al. (2014) supported the use of hand movements as effective for promoting general learning. The results of their document analysis showed that many researchers have tended to prefer VP, which they view to be an interventional practice that made of systems containing distinctive hand shapes for the phonemes in the English language. Briggle (2005), however, suggests a better strategy, similar to that of using fingerspelling, in recording words in print. Based on a review of literature, Briggle (2005) found that children with DHH connected fingerspelling they used in daily communications with the daily conversations, in addition to the written English language. From this, it could be reasoned that selection of the highly significant words would start showing in his writings.

Still, the phonemes Tucci et al. (2014) dwells on are crucial for illustrating how the sound–symbol connects to spoken English. The researchers pointed out that the VP system is reliant on the shapes of hands, which is applied in mimicking mannerism of the tongue, mouth and throat in a bid to offer visual link to the shapes of the letters. Still, they seem to have hugely relied on vigorous qualitative and quantitative studies undertaken from1985 to 2010. Bases on the emerging evidence, it could be reasoned that the use of VP turn out to be an effective tool for promote DHH children’s to acquisition of grapheme–phoneme correspondences.

However, Cannon and Guardino (2012) argued against the application of letter-sound relationships. In their view, it presents a challenge for students with hearing loss. They opined that DHH students are inclined to generalise the beginning sounds as conditioned by the visual cues used to shape a shape a word using the hands. Clearly, while such a strategy is potentially effective for certain words, including the names, DHH children can generalise them to also include also certain words that lack sign-initial consonant correspondence.

The results by Tucci’s et al. (2014) also indicate some consistency with a study by Briggle (2005), which also showed that the research base for interventions within the area of DHH education is not exhaustive. At any rate, the emerging evidence by Tucci et al. (2014) reiterates the need to apply lexicalized fingerspelling in a chaining sequence, VP and Iconic/semantic representation as appropriate for helping children who are deaf or hard of hearing to learn to decode. At any rate, it is clear from findings that that teachers should use finger-spelling as a critical strategy for teaching DHH children new words. The need to offer written and sign labels in the class in order to assist students in associating signs with spoken language could be achieved using fingerspelling. Over and above these, several relevant practices, as Briggle (2005) suggests, comprises writing keywords, and phrases on the blackboard, use of visual aids for assisting the students to access extra information while learning in class, in addition to using an overhead projector, as it allows the teacher to face the students directly.

3.1.3 Auditory cues (AC)

In a recent study relating to auditory cues (AC), Kristoffersen and Simonsen (2014) reviewed literacy practices that DHH children use in preschool in Norway. The researchers found that DHH children tended to depend mostly on visual cues. For this reason, children are likely to prefer the use of sign language instead of just the oral communication. It could still be reasoned that since many conflicting strands of evidence exist as regards the significance of visual cues, the use of auditory cues in helping DHH children to develop spoken language is indeed critical. At any rate, emerging evidence from Grimes et al. (2007) and Tucci et al. (2014) offer valid results that place emphasis on unraveling the complexity. Kristoffersen and Simonsen (2014), Grimes et al. (2007) and Tucci et al. (2014) agree on using cochlear implants in helping to unravel such complexities. In concluding, use of auditory cues in helping DHH children should not be downplayed.

3.2 Research Aims

Past and current strand of literature on DHH children’s literacy acquisition has indicated that DHH children have historically graduated high school with low reading comprehension level like that of a normal child in 4th grade (Neilson, 2005; Paul 1998). However, some researchers like Wang et al (2008) have linked the prevalent lack of progress to the lapse in teaching phonics and phonemic awareness. Easterbrooks et al (2008) also established that teaching grapheme-phoneme awareness to DHH children has failed to be given a priority, despite the fact that it can bring gains n reading as well as reading comprehension. Overall, there has been a lack of consistent strategy for teaching children with DHH. This forms the basis of this research.

There is, however, significant lack of research linked to the reading acquisition of deaf individuals. The research literature further suggests speech reading and Visual Phonics or Cued Speech has the potential to provide DHH students access to effective learning strategies. It is further established that instruction rooted in the phonics and phonemic awareness is certainly apposite for DHH students. Still, there is a need for comprehensive research and a rethinking of the existing educational practices to apply visual strategies in enhancing teaching in schools.

The proposed study aims to investigate effective strategies for teaching children with DHH.

3.3. Significance and Expected Outcomes

This research study will have a significant impact on the ability of DHH student to assimilate as well as to communicate their awareness of grapheme-phoneme relationships. This study results and discussion will supply additional information for adding to the growing research on teaching strategies for DHH students. The findings of the study will also form a basis for future researches. In order to promote the data collection towards the objective of increasing the generalizability of the findings, future studies may have to include also comparing the effective strategies for teaching DHH students.

4. Methodology

The research approach will be based on the grounded theory. The theory is selected as it allows the researcher undertake a study based on the topic of interest, in this case effective teaching strategies for DHH students, before later collecting data before identifying themes and ideas as they develop during the research process. The theory suggests the use of a combination of systematic inductive methods for carrying out qualitative research. The Grounded theory is significant to this research as it will provide unambiguous yet sequential guidelines to carry out qualitative research, it provides strategies for addressing research analysis inquiry, it integrates data collection and data analysis, and lastly it ensures that qualitative data is conceptually analysed (Cho & Lee, 2014).

The research question “What are the effective strategies for teaching DHH children?” is explorative in nature. Therefore, it requires a general overview of the existing circumstances in current institutions in order to identify the effective strategies for teaching DHH children (Woolley, 2009). For these reasons, this study will rely on qualitative research design. The participants will include teachers who have taught DHH students for more than five years.

researcher to ask detailed questions and the participants to provide answers exhaustively. It is also expected to ensure high response rates and for the researcher to record their responses verbatim. The method is also particularly suitable for small sample of six participants (Kawulich, 2004).The research interview method of collecting data was selected since it is expected to enable the researcher to explore into the teachers’ views, experiences, motivations and beliefs on the most effective strategies for teaching DHH students. It was also selected as it allows the

Collection of secondary data will be from relevant research literature, internet sources, organisational reports, in addition to company databases. The secondary data to be used will be critically evaluated in order to achieve greater level of insight into the effective teaching strategies for DHH students (Phellas et al., 2011; Ellis & Levy, 2008).

Collection of primary data will be based on semi-structured interview questionnaires. The process will entail the use of verbally administered questionnaires. Subsequently, the respondents will be interviewed from a list of pre-set questions that have limited variations and scope (Onwuegbuzie et al., 2012; Cohen et al., 2007; Heyvaert e al., 2013).

The decision to use semi-structured interview method is rationalised by the fact that the researcher wishes to see the participants respond to a similar set of questions or stimuli as this will enable him to realise identical combination of stimuli from the researchers (Cohen et al., 2007).

Selection of the participants will be through purposive sampling to represent the population.

The suggested population for the proposed study are teachers of deaf or hard of hearing students. The targeted population will be localized. The targeted participants will be both male and female teachers of indiscriminate race. The suggested sampling method will be purposive sampling since a sample viewed to be representative of the targeted population will be used. The key advantage of this type of sampling is that it proposes the use of clear selection procedures.

However, a potential challenge is that the sample size is expected to be small hence limiting the potential for generalizability of the research findings. The teacher participants will consist of qualified teachers of the DHH students as well any regular teacher who often works with the DHH students. The constructs related linked to the suggested study will comprise the teaching styles of the teachers, and the abilities of the DHH students. However, the variables of teachers’ effectiveness will be examined during the study.

The participants will be contacted through their school administration using emails and phone calls. Each of the participants, who willingly agree to participate in the interview, was interviewed on a one-off basis. Prior to an interview, the researcher will inform the respondents on the purpose and the estimated period of the interview. The researcher will aim to establish rapport with the participants by introducing himself to encourage a positive effect on the interview. The research questions will start with those that are easy to understand before proceeding to the more difficult or sensitive, as this will put the participants ease.

The researcher will record the responses under each question, which would later be read out to the participants to get their full consent. While answering the questions, the participants will be asked cite relevant examples from their teaching experiences. To ensure anonymity, the participants will be referred by the alphanumeric P1 to P6.

The five-step model for data analysis will be used, where it will involve (1) condensing meaning (2) categoring of meaning, (3) structuring of narratives, (4) meaning interpretation, and (5) meaning generation (Sathye, 2004).

5. Ethical considerations

Approval and permission of the selected schools for the study will be sought before the teachers are interviewer. During the interview, the researcher will strive to maintain a climate of respect, human dignity as well as a right to privacy. Indeed, the researcher will inform all the participants of their right to privacy as well as ensure that private information is protected at all times.

In the event that questions broach cultural sensitivity, the researcher will remind interviewees of their rights as well as the ethical obligation towards the participants. In the process of recruiting the targeted respondents, the researcher will inform them of the purpose of the research and their freedom to withdraw from the research at their own will and at any time. They will be allowed to withdraw from the research without reprisal.

To further ensure privacy, the identities of the participants will not be revealed. This will also ensure anonymity. To also ensure maintenance of accuracy and confidentiality, the researcher will interpret the transcripts personally, rather than give it to a third party. The research participants will be sufficiently informed on research methods, research aim, and any probable risks associated with participating in the research process.

Additionally, the vulnerable persons will be exempted from participating in the research, unless deemed necessary and under the supervision of a third neutral party. All ideas developed or derived from secondary sources will be referenced as necessary (Ferguson et al., 2004).

The researcher will also present data collected accurately by making sure it reflects the actual data source and context (Lindorff 2007). Finally, the researcher will steer clear of any form of data falsification and fabrication.

Reference list:

Antia, S. (2013). Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in the Mainstream. Retrieved: <http://raisingandeducatingdeafchildren.org/deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-students-in-the-mainstream>

Briggle, S. (2005). Language and Literacy Development in CHildren who are Deaf or Hearing Impaired. Kappa Delta Pie Record Winter 2005, pp.68-71

Cannon, J. &Guardino, C. (2012). Literacy Strategies for Deaf/Hard-ofHearing English Language Learners: Where Do We Begin? Deaf & Education International 14(2), 78-99

Dalton, C. (2013). Lessons for Inclusion: Classroom experiences of students with mild and moderate hearing loss. Canadian Journal Of Education 36(1), 125-152

Easterbrooks, S. R., Lederberg, A. R., Miller, E. M., Bergeron, J. P., & Connor, C. (2008). Emergent literacy skills during early childhood in children with hearing loss: Strengths and weaknesses. Volta Review, 108, 91–114

Ferguson, L, Yonge, O & Myrick, F 2004, «Students’ involvement in faculty research: Ethical and methodological issues,» International Journal of Qualitative Methods vol 3 no 4, pp.1-14

Grimes, M &Thoutenhoofd, E. & Byrne, D. Language Approaches Used With Deaf Pupils in Scottish Schools: 2001–2004, Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 12(4), 230-551

Kawulich, B. (2004). Data Analysis in Qualitative Research. State University of West Goergia. Retrieved: <http://www.eeraonline.org/journal/files/2004/JRE_2004_08_Kawulich.pdf>

Kristoffersen, A. &Simonsen, E. (2014). Teacher-assigned Literacy Ecents in A BImodial, Blingual Preschool with Deaf and Hearing Children. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy 14(1), 80-104

Lindorff M 2007, “The Ethical Impact of Business and Organisational Research: the Forgotten Methodological Issue?” The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, vol 5 Iss 1, pp. 21 – 28

Marschark, M., Spencer, P., Adams, J. &Sapere, P. (2011). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing children: teaching to their cognitive strengths and needs. European Journal of Special Needs Education 26(1), 3-16

Miller, E., Lederberg, A. &Easterbrooks, S. (2012). Phonological Awareness: Explicit Instruction for Young Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 206-227

National Association of the Deaf (NAD) (2014). Position Statement On Early Cognitive and Language Development and Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children. Retrieved: <http://nad.org/position-statement-early-cognitive-and-language-development-and-education-dhh-children>

Nielsen, D. C., & Luetke-Stahlman, B. (2002). Phonological awareness: One key to the reading proficiency of deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 147(3), 11-19.

Paul, P. (1998). Literacy and deafness: The development of reading, writing, and literate thought. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon

Sathye, M. (2004). Leadership in Higher Education: A Qualitative Study. FQS Open Journal Systems 5(3)

Tucci, S., Trussell, J. &Easterbrooks, S. (2014). A Review of the Evidence on Strategies for Teaching Children Who Are DHH Grapheme–Phoneme Correspondence. Communication Disorders Quarterly 35(4) 191–203

Wang, Y., Trezek, B. J., Luckner, J. L., & Paul, P. V. (2008). The role of phonology and phonologically related skills in reading instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 153(4), 396-407.