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Sport Development


21.0 Introduction

22.0 Literature Review

22.1 Sport Development

32.2 Development of Sport

42.3 Development through Sport

73.0 Dots Explanation

7(Black Dot) Quadrantst1

7 Quadrant (Purple and Orange Dot)nd2

7 Quadrant (Blue and Grey Dot)rd3

8 Quadrant (Red and Light Green)th4

94.0 Discussions

94.1 Matrix Interpretation

9 Quadrantst1

9 Quadrantnd2

9 Quadrantrd3

10 Quadrantth4

104.2 Analysis

104.2.1 Dots Distribution Implication

114.2.2 Female Involvement

115.0 Conclusion


Sports Development Programs

1.0 Introduction

Sports development programmes in places which are socially and economically deprived aims at the development of sport in the community and the development of community through sport. Programmes involved in the development of sport are sporting inclusive and the expected outcomes of those projects ensure that barriers to participation in sports are removed from the society targeted towards a given population or groups (Coalter, 2002). The community’s development through sport, however, has programmes which are socially inclusive. Despite their main aim is the reduction of barriers and increased participation, they have a different concern in using sport as a means to develop themselves in wider aspects (Coalter, 2002).

Volleyball is one of the big five international sports and has witnessed unprecedented growth. It is a complex game though requires simple skills. However, success in the game requires the team to devise new strategies and skills. For example in crucial moments of an intense incredible match, it reaches a point where a hitter uses a little extra spring at the net because a spike for a kill could make the difference between winning and losing. Get fast sports performance training centres have always perfected the development of volleyball players (Volleyball Development Programs, 2017).

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Sport Development

Sports development has been regarded as the activities that promote a specific sport as a result of effective networking, a partnership among service providers, community groups, volunteers and facility operators (Collins, 1995). Various sport development programmes, for example, Fiji Paralympic Committee encourages positive attitudes among disabled people and they are supported by the Australian Sports Outreach Program (Australian Sports Commission, 2011). They have advocated for children with disability to be included in mainstream sport and organised festivals that bring children from mainstream schools and those with disability and together. For example, the Just Play program by Oceania Football Confederation also provides girls in the entire Pacific with frequent opportunities to take part in physical activities which are safe and healthy. Just Play program mainly targets children channelled through clinics and schools which are community-based and are operated by volunteers and trained coaches (Australian Sports Commission, 2011). Working with players from the age of 7 through the Olympic and collegiate levels, they use a combination of speed equipment and specialised strength, analytical assessments for movement and also mental tenacity training in achieving results (Schulenkorf et al., 2016). Players are pretested into the volleyball development system, and they are the post-tested consistently with significant gains in power, speed and strength. The players have boosted athletic abilities which make them have a reduced risk of getting involved in injuries. Such training programmes provide developed sport-specific energy systems at increasingly higher levels of performance (Volleyball Development Programs, 2017).

Sports development requires sport- specific skills that involve jumping or quickness ability which are needed to excel. This has enhanced self-control and self-discipline (Coalter et al, 2000.) In volleyball training program, high-speed treadmills both in reverse and forward capacities are used, this elicits an increased level of neuromuscular responses. Platform jumps are employed to improve the ability to jump vertically (UNOSDP, 2012). Volleyball development by the provision of field turf, weight rooms, SoloSpike devices, training centers and straight track are specific programs for volleyball development. Where volleyball sports are organized on basis of criterion, participants are involved in establishing their own progress and standards to achieve (Coalter, 2002).

2.2 Development of Sport

Development of sport has been regarded as the various systems and pathways that support the progression of a sporting activity and or the participant. In the past decade, development of sport has obtained significant interest from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, sport academics and practitioners in sports all over the globe (Schulenkorf et al., 2016). Development of sport has been identified as “the use of various sport inclusion programs in exerting a positive health impact, adults socialization, the youth, children, the development of states and regions, and also foster intercultural exchange (Lyras & Welty Peachey, 2011). As a consequence of increasing institutional and political support, sport-based projects have increased and they aim at contributing positively to the development of volleyball (Schulenkorf et al., 2016).

The development of sport begins from its competence to target a large number of participants especially those involved in increased physical activity. They, therefore, use this momentum within the sport as a strategy in the implementation of development goals outside sports (Schulenkorf & Adair, 2014). Within the academic domain, various empirical and theoretical studies across several sports disciplines, volleyball, in this case, has led to an influx in the development of such sports (Burnett, 2013). Despite the occurrence of significant scholarship in the development of the sport, to date, there are limited attempts to rigorously synthesize and review approaches, research studies and findings on the development of the sport. Systematic reflection on the broader implications of the development of sport as a complex component of knowledge is also limited.

2.3 Development through Sport

Development-through-sport is an approach that first identifies the objectives for development and then determines the planning of sport-based activities to contribute to these objectives. It acknowledges sport as an approach can be used enhance development objectives. Sport has unique attributes including its popularity, communication platform, its health benefits in reducing some diseases and its capability all can be used as a tool to attain a wide range of development strategies (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998).

Participation in volleyball has been correlated with various positive outcomes in its development. For example, reports on high levels of problem-solving, self-esteem, regulation of emotions, social skills and attainment of goals have been recorded from participants (Barber et al., 2001). In school set ups, volleyball sports participation has been reported to have led to lower levels of school dropout, increased average grade points and higher college attendance rates for working class and low achieving males (Eccles et al., 2003). Larson and Seepersad (2003) identified that adolescents’ sports experiences are better from almost all other activities (schoolwork and socialization) in the provision of enjoyment opportunities and at the same time exerting effort toward a given set goal

Sport-based activities have contributed to a secure and safer communities as it engages young individuals in useful activities thereby preventing their involvement in anti-social behaviour. Through this, it helps in building a sense of shared identity among groups of participants for example in volleyball. The participants must always adhere to rules despite their cultural, social or economic status. Establishment of sports organisations and engagement of the entire community, sport improves community leadership fostering decision-making process and provide social ties that stabilize the community.

development programs


development programs 1

Oceanic football confederation

development programs 2

Disability sport

development programs 3

Fiji Paralympic sports

development programs 4

Get Fast Sports Performance

development programs 5

Australian government pacific sports

development programs 6

Junior men’s volleyball

development programs 7

Junior women’s volleyball

3.0 Dots Explanation

1st Quadrant (Black Dot)

Australian Government pacific sports is the dominant sports developments program in this section, as showcased by the dots in the 1st quadrant. The Australian Government pacific sports program is used by the government to advance the interest of sports as implied by Harris et al, (2016). Through this program, it trains athlete and acquires the resources they need to mold them into the very best elites. These elites can then proceed to the national team where they can work as professionals. With this the elites can showcase in the international platform like the Olympics and volleyball an international audience and recognition.

2nd Quadrant (Purple and Orange Dot)

These quadrant has two dominant programs namely: Fiji Paralympic Program and Get Fast Sports Performance.

The Fiji Paralympic Program is aimed at the development of both the participants and volleyball sport at large. The athletes are trained to the highest possible level. After this training, some are recommended to the national team where they can play professionally while others are sent to the very best volleyball teams in the country.

Get Fast Sport Performance trains athlete to get the most out of their bodies. The athlete’s game is developed highly regardless of age or gender. It focuses on moulding an athlete to have improved speed, strength, agility and improve vertical jump. The program is especially very effective as it trains the athlete on ways to avoid injury. With this sort of training athletes that come through the ranks of the system are able to compete fairly on the international platform. They become a better version of themselves and this could imply better contracts for some of them.

3rd Quadrant (Blue and Grey Dot)

The two dots in this quadrant represent Oceanic Football Confederation and Disability Sports.

The Oceanic Football Confederation attempts to make sports popular by using the athletes as suggested by Baker (2017). It focuses more on the gains of sports and why its important for resources to be channelled towards its development. In as much as it promotes the development of the participants, it focuses more on the development of volleyball itself. Considering its coverage across six continents, its effects are really well felt.

The Disability Sports Program looks unrealistic to think that this should be used or is being used for promotion of sports and sports related activities. However, it does so and to really good effect. The psychology behind this is attention. People around the world will grow curious as to this kind of sport. They will need to know more about disabled people engaging in sports as suggested Rowe K et al, (2016). Disability sport is found in the context of deaf volleyball where the participant has impaired hearing and sitting volleyball where the participant’s luck either one or both of their limbs. It is worth noting however that this program is also greatly channelled towards the development of the participants.

4th Quadrant (Red and Light Green)

The dots in this quadrant represents the Junior Women’s Volleyball and Junior Men’s Volleyball program.

Junior Women’s Volleyball program is mainly aimed at the growth of the participants. The junior women are trained and allowed some allowance to cater for their own needs. The program sprung from the fact that women are relatively discriminated against in the sporting arena. As discussed by Soderstrom et al, (2016), this is supported by the fact that they naturally lack the drive to engage themselves in sports activities. A conducive environment where they can train freely is thus offered to them. Those among them who excel here may be absorbed into the national women volleyball team. Some are recommended to other teams where they build a successful career.

Junior Men’s Volleyball program was mainly put into place to save the boy child. The young men of Australia. Like their counterparts, they are offered specialised training and allowed to ascend to the highest possible level. They are also offered some allowance and a chance to join the national volley ball team. As implied by Houlihan B &Green M, (2017), this have served to reduced crime rates as well as rid the cities off idleness as the young men are kept busy in their various training programs.

4.0 Discussions

4.1 Matrix Interpretation

1st Quadrant

In this quadrant, the sorting programs evidenced are geared to the enhancement of the sporting gurus within Australia. Arguably the Australian Government Pacific sports program is aimed at enhancing the skillset of the participants at divergent levels. This quadrant denotes the development of sports of the elites and is geared toward enhancing the skills of the players in volleyball section. Enhanced sporting training is evidenced within this section, where well-trained coaches are used to train the players on effective tactical approach during competitions. This approach, therefore, limits interested parties that are not attuned to undertaking volleyball as professional sports.

2nd Quadrant

The two dots in this quadrant — Fiji Paralympic Program
Get Fast Sports Performance, are geared towards the enhancement of a specific sporting attribute for both the physically challenges and normal athletes. This quadrant is limited to professionals in the sorting arena. It is observed that the elites are involved in intensified training exercise that aims at enhancing their speed, agility, strength and vertical jumps throughout the game. This specialized training is thought to enhance specific skills paramount in enhancing competitive advantage at various sporting levels. Whereas , this quadrant could be though to enhance significant beneficial health behaviors including increased vegetable and fruit consumption, healthy losing of weight are important in preventing diseases related to obesity and reduced physical inactivity as denoted by Melnick et al., (2001), such health approaches could enhance strength and agility on the play field. The elite Paralympic individuals, for example, need to enhance limb strength as professions in this category mostly use their limbs to play.

3rd Quadrant

The programs in this quadrant are aimed at the enhancing social interaction within the society. Contrary to elite oriented programs, these program is directed towards the communities and social related events. The Oceanic Football Confederation involves the inclusion of divergent continents where divergent cultures are drawn together. In this approach, the participants are able to learn each other culture. The disabled on the other hand, are able to enhance their self-esteem through interaction with normal people. Evidently, they are able to freely interact amongst each other and also with normal people. Such interaction improves on team work, self-confidence and they generally feel accepted within the society/community.

4th Quadrant

The two programs in this quadrant enhance gender cohesion as opposed to enhancing gender roles within the society. Whereas different critiques argue that various sports are meant for specific genders this programs, where young men and women within the local schools can be given an opportunity to develop volleyball sporting skills. Through its inclusion in education programs at a young age, will enhance their propensity in participating in sports. Arguably, it also enhances interaction levels amongst themselves. The two sporting programs since they have similar objectives.

4.2 Analysis

The programs that have been devised to develop sports in Australia have by far met the expectation of aiding in the development of volleyball. The Junior Men’s volleyball mentor athletes right from a young age. Athletes ascend gradually through the ranks and could end up making it to the Australian national volleyball team. Here they can not only make a career for themselves but also promote volleyball as a sport through what they showcase on the pitches.

Government funded programs like the Australian government pacific sports ensure that the various volleyball sporting gears are readily available to athletes. This creates motivation among the athletes who then strive to give their best on the pitches. With this, they are able to earn volleyball a widespread recognition. This is especially true when international events are hosted. The Olympics is one excellent example of a platform that athletes really thrive in.

4.2.1 Dots Distribution Implication

The dots are evenly spread out within the matrix as opposed to dots concentrated on one quadrant which would otherwise be an indication of a shortcoming in the sports development program of Australia. This would imply that some stakeholders are more involved than other. It could also mean that certain group of people is more taken care of than others. Most visible of this could be a situation where the disabled people are completely omitted in the sports development program. If there is a low involvement of one or several of the stakeholders in the sports development program, dots are likely to be concentrated on one quadrant as suggested by Harris et al, (2016). As already pointed out, each stakeholder is neatly playing their role in fostering a well-integrated sports development program in Australia.

4.2.2 Female Involvement

The women or rather female side of all these endeavors is evident. Women have been well taken care of and represented in as far as volleyball in this country is concerned. Several programs have specifically been put into place for the gain of the women children and grownups alike. The Junior Women’s Volleyball program is an excellent example of just how much has been invested to develop the sporting arena in relation to the ladies. Through this program they are trained and given opportunity to make a career of sports.

Oceanic Football Confederation is a program that ensures that the girl child is sufficiently involved in sports. It’s in action not only in Australia but also well spread out across six continents. This program empowers the girl child in the sporting aspect in a way that impacts in the girl’s life. It offers training as well as opportunity for stars to excel in the volleyball arena. It does this by negotiating moves of its trainees to good volleyball clubs.

5.0 Conclusion

An effective sporting development is guided by the objectives and target participation that it sought to attract, whether elite or community oriented programs. Scholars view sports development as a function of individual interactions and characteristics of their contextual social surrounding. Such relations dynamics, therefore, build the basis of developmental change and behavior (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998). As showcased in the seven programs, each program is attuned to the specific objective and target group. These specific sport presents a holistic approach to both the society and professionalism, where Paralympics and young men and women are actively involved to enhance divergent attributes of the sporting activity. These programs are thus attuned to Collins (1995) assertions where sports development are geared towards the inclusion of community groups and various facilitators, such as the governments


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