Solar Powered Water Pump Automatic Cooling System for the Panels

Most solar PV installations are rated to perform most efficiently at about 250C. When their surface temperatures go beyond this value, their efficiency is reduced continuously for every subsequent rise in temperature. To prevent such a scenario, the solar modules need to be cooled from time to time. This can be done by connecting the panels to a water supply which cools them whenever they overheat. This paper details how such a cooling system can be implemented.

Solar Powered Water Pump - Automatic cooling system for the panels

In the schematic above, the manner in which the cooling system works is shown. The entire process begins at the solar panel, whose surface becomes heated when the solar rays strike its surface. It is connected to a temperature sensor which records how hot it is. When the surface temperature exceeds the maximum allowable value, it sends a signal to the control unit. The unit checks by how high this excess value is and sets the amount of charge to be passed to the battery from the solar panel through the charge controller. The higher the excess temperature is, the higher the quantity of charge passed. Consequently, this determines the amount of energy that the pump is supplied with.

In the meantime, cool water flows from the source tank to the pump where it is pushed towards the solar panel. The force with which it is pushed and hence the quantity supplied is dependent on the quantity of energy the pump has been provided with by the battery. The water flows along the pipes within the panel and cools it while it gets warmer. The warm water later reaches the storage tank where it remains until it is cool again. Since this is a continuous process, the storage tank is also connected to the pump and supplies the cooling water once its temperature is low enough.