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10Social marketing


Executive summary

The social theory has been used to change unwanted social behavior. It also gives the right strategies that are used for intervention. The evaluation of strategies for changing behavior will normally depend on the environment, the people being changed and the behavior. The theory provides a framework that is used for designing and implementing programs. The three factors that are found in the social cognitive theory are people; environment and behavior are seen to be affecting themselves constantly. What this means is that behavior is not just because of people and the environment just behavior is not because of people and environment. The environment gives the model for behavior. Learning that is referred to as observational entail the change of behavior of someone when that person observes the behaviors of someone else and the reinforcements that that person gets. This paper will analyze how the social cognitive theory can be applied to change the binge drinking behavior.

Binge drinking has been a problem in the society for quite some time. Various strategies have been used to reduce this vice in the society. There have immense social impacts of Binge drinking from an individual perspective, within the family and with friends. Most of the social effects are a resultant of the individual impacts such as Psychological disturbances where binge drinking Causes depression, anxiety and insomnia as well as hangovers, which is assemblage of distasteful and excruciating symptoms that can emerge after binge drinking, these symptoms can be mild discomfort to exceedingly harsh symptoms.

Table of Contents

2Executive summary

3Table of Contents


4Identification of strategy

4Assumptions and statements

4Social problem: Binge drinking

5Social marketing planning process

6Market segmentation


7Upstream model




Identification of strategy

There are many strategies that have been identified that deal with social behavior change. The various theories find relevance with the behavior and the situation that is to be changed. The social cognitive theory is relevant in this case as it deals with health behavior problem (Atif, Elnaffar, & Al Falahi, 2010). Ti deals with cognitive and emotional aspects and with aspects of behavior for getting more information on the change. The second aspect of the social cognitive theory is that it gives a new way of doing research in education concerning health. The third aspect is that the other theoretical areas of research are accommodated so that new insights and understanding can be achieved.

Assumptions and statements

The social cognitive theory gives an explanation on how people get and maintain some behavioral patterns. There is also some basis for interventions. The theory provides a framework that is used for designing and implementing programs (Baker & Saren, 2010). The three factors that are found in the social cognitive theory are people; environment and behavior are seen to be affecting themselves constantly. What this means is that behavior is not just as a result of people and the environment just behavior is not as a result of people and environment

Social problem: Binge drinking

Binge drinking has been defined as the contemporary activity of drinking alcoholic beverages with the principal objective of becoming intoxicated by profound utilization of alcohol within short span of time. Whereas the purposeful drinking technique is common in several countries internationally, as it is to some extent similar with social drinking since it is often done in groups, the activity is more prevalent in Australia, where exact degree of intoxication, show a discrepancy between and within various cultures and communities that engage in the practice (Barschel, 2007). The impacts of Binge drinking are diverse and may take duration of hours or last up to several days. Binge drinking can also result in vomiting, loss of sensory perception and blackouts, considering long-term impacts and negative consequence of alcohol misuse, binge drinking is deemed a major Major Social Problem and health problem.

Social marketing planning process

Unlike the traditional planning process, the social marketing process entail targeting markets that have been selected before embarking on goals and objectives. Another difference is the fact that competition is not identified in the situation analysis. In addition, the measures of the plan are shown by the goals that of the plan (French, Stevens, McVey, & Merritt, 2010).

The problem that needs to be solved is the binge drinking in youth in Australia. Campaigns for health communication are normally aimed at large groupings of individuals and are conducted at specific times. The planning process entails organized, planned and engaging in activities aimed at communication (Goldberg, Fishbein, & Middlestadt, 1997). Recent developments have seen emphasis on the use of theory so that they guide the development of the campaign. The designers of the behavior put into practice theories and models that are targeted at individual or micro-individual levels.

One of the problems that is normally experienced in social marketing planning process is the fact that it is hard to identify and apply the right communication and persuasion and behavior change theory to defeat the obstacles for behavior change. The model of stages-of-change gives framework of how theories and media effects like setting agenda and multistep flow and theories that are used for persuasion can be used in the campaign (Haig, 2001). There are also implications that come due to segmentation of the audience and the selection of the objectives and the design of the message. In this paper, it is argued that the use of stages-of-change framework to organize different and varying theories coherently enables people to recognize the theories that work to each campaign audience and to impart knowledge concerning change of behavior. This way, some of the most difficult communication tasks are solved today (Haig, 2001).

In our case, the planning process will involve laying out strategies to reach at the youth because current statistics show that the youth are the leading category of binge drinkers. There is therefore the need to plan for campaigns to mobilize the youth to change their ways. The marketing strategies that can be used include visiting students at colleges.

Market segmentation

The first stage of the planning process will be the identification of the segment that will be addressed in the campaign. The market segment that the market will be directed will be the youth. Most youth have been found to indulge in the drinking spree and therefore there is therefore the need to reverse this situation. This has been arrived at using age. There will be further segmentation where the youth will be segmented basing on the education level that they are in.

There are variables that should be considered when segmenting. The variable that should be used will have to be conclusive enough to take care of the attributes that is looked for. There are three categories of variables that should be considered when coming up with a segment (Hastings, 2007). These are personal characteristics, benefit that is sought and the measures of behavior that are required.


After coming up with the segments, there will be the development of the objectives and the development of the marketing mix. Aaker (1996) further argues that the positioning should be developed after the brand has been developed. He further states that positioning should be clearly understood to be that part of the brand that should be actively communicated to the audience so that they understand it and know the importance that this part has over other brands. Kottler (1994) states that this is referred to as the selling proposition of the brand. In our case of social cognitive theory, the selling proposition is the fact that youth who are not drinking are known to study in school and have good and consistent concentration in school. This will be the selling proposition.

Upstream model

The main aim of social marketing focuses on the behavior. The upstream model tries to reach the isolated people in our society and make them have a passion on life once again. The main issue that is focused on is that of behavior. While the commercial marketers concentrate on the profitability and value of shareholders, the social marketers value the consumer behavior. The upstream model is because the social marketers are supposed to identify the behavior to change; there are many options that need to be analyzed as the option to be changed is being analyzed (Hastings, 2007).

In the case of binge drinking, it is right to identify whether to change the behavior of the students, the policy of the colleges and the universities they are in or the alcohol marketers. This is moving further upstream. The marketing approach should therefore be geared towards a long-term issue rather than short-term. The long-term solution here would be to look at the changes that can be done in the colleges and campuses.


In conclusion, the behavior change follows the marketing process. The marketing process and the social marketing share some common things together. In cognitive theory and the upstream model, the overriding issue in this case is looking for ways to change the behavior of the target group. All the above-mentioned steps should be taken into consideration to realize the much-desired change.


Atif, Y., Elnaffar, S., & Al Falahi, K. (2010). Social networks: Challenges and new opportunities. Al Ain: United Arab Emirates University Press.

Baker, M., & Saren, M. (2010). Marketing theory: A student text. New York: Sage Publications Ltd.

Barschel, H. (2007). B2B versus B2C marketing: Major differences along teh supply chain of fast moving consumer googds (FMCG). New Jersey: Grin Verlag.

French, J., Stevens, C., McVey, D., & Merritt, R. (2010). Social marketing and public health: Theory and practice. London: Oxford.

Goldberg, M., Fishbein, M., & Middlestadt, S. (1997). Social marketing: Theoretical and practical perspectives. New York: Routledge.

Haig, M. (2001). The B2B e-commerce handbook: How to transform your business-to-business global marketing strategy. Carlifornia: Kogan Page Publishers.

Hastings, G. (2007). Social marketing: Why should the devil hae all the best tunes? New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.