Smuggling in China Essay Example
Smuggling in China
Smuggling in China has become a major issue in China since it has been in existence for decades. Even though beef smuggling has increased over the years especially due to the decrease in the production of beef and high prices that have affected the beef sector. The increase in trafficking of beef cases in China has affected the beef industry by raising health concerns and at the same time affecting the prices as well as the demand and supply in the market. However, beef should undergo through the proper channels to ensure that it is safe to use and does not compromise the health and safety of the public. On the other hand, Human smuggling in China has increased with the rise of major syndicates in China exposing children, women and men to unjust conditions. Therefore, they should be controlled to ensure that the smuggling vice is eliminated.
Beef smuggling has affected Chinese economy for more than five decades. This has created a situation where various gangs have been formed which aids the beef smuggling process. Beef snuggling in China has become major issues with different cases where interception has been made relating to the meat smuggling. Beef smuggling from United Sates to China has raised significant problems and the customs departments which have tried to ensure that the smuggling is stopped in the long given that it raise ethical, economic and also health problems. There has been crackdown that has been undertaken by the Chinese authorities to make sure beef smuggling is eliminated which has affected the local economy. More than 6,000 tonnes of beef has been intercepted on a yearly basis which means more and more beef is being smuggled in China. Chongqing Customs District has been at the forefront in intercepting beef smuggling cases. Beef smugglers often use various tactics including the use of invalid invoices and at the same time the use of false agreements to ensure that they gain custom clearance across China.
Analysis of Beef smuggling in China
China is one of the largest beef producers in the world but at the same time is the biggest consumer of beef products in the world. It is the third highest producer of beef across the globe, and this shows that the country can produce beef to satisfy the local economy and export related products, but this has not been the case. However, one of the biggest problem in the past has been the abandonment of the cattle industry by most producers in China in the early 2000s to take up other opportunities in other sectors. This primarily affected the production of beef in China an industry that was not considered by most producers as not profitable enough which has created a massive shortage in the market. It is believed that over 50% of the beef imports in China is smuggled across the border which is a significant challenge to Chinese authorities and the local market. This is a major problem in China especially due to the value of the beef that has been intercepted which includes beef worth more than the 32.6 million dollars. Other cases of meat smuggling have emanated from other countries such as India where the smugglers have used different inlets including the Vietnam to ensure that they have the ability to venture into the Chinese market which is often difficult for most businesses. Under invoicing of the beef products has been the primary strategy that has been used by the Chinese based smugglers who have adopted different strategies to ensure that they smuggle beef products in China.
The Chinese customs authorities have the ability and the mandate to control the illegal trade that arises from the beef smuggling in China. Beef smuggling creates a scenario where there is the availability of cheap beef products in the market given that under-invoicing creates a situation there are lower taxes paid for the beef products available in the market. Cheap imports have adverse effects on the Chinese beef sector given that it forces the local dealers to adjust their prices to meet the prices that have been set by those that have smuggled cheap beef into the Chinese market (Beato, Terregino, Cattoli, & Capua, I2006).
It is clear that China has been one of the major players in terms of beef production and at the same time, the consumption has increased which has created extra demand. Even though the local economy has the capability of producing the beef products with the ability to satisfy the local economy, still the market has bit been exploited in the right manner which has led to increased meat import in the country. In fact, the growth in demand for beef products in China has raised the beef prices, and the smugglers have responded by increasing their imports into the country through illegal means. In fact, by the year 2013, the beef prices had increased from 2010 by over 21% even though the local market has recorded increased production of beef products. Customer demand has been the main driving force for the increased beef smuggling in China especially given that the local market has been unable to complete satisfy the local demand. There have been cases where more than two million tonnes are imported illegally into China while more than 400,000 tonnes are exported in a formal way which shows how the customer’s demand have shaped the beef market in China. However, Chinese authorities have responded by putting in place regulations to help in managing beef market and regulate the beef prices which seems to have motivated smugglers to import more beef products from China and the United States. Furthermore, the Chinese authorities have also focused on increasing the imports to ensure that China controls the beef prices, but this must be done in the right manner. The high-cost structures in the beef market have affected the entry in this market, and this is one of the main reasons why most people are turning to the import sector to help in providing the necessary solutions (Moore, & Phillips, 2009).
The Chinese authorities have the responsibilities of protecting the local industry especially the cattle sector which has mostly been affected by the beef smuggling in China. However, to ensure that the market is safeguarded, the customs department has stepped up measures to make sure that the domestic market is well protected. Smuggling is not only unethical, but it also affects the country economy to a large extent especially the local industry. The cases of beef smuggling have increased in China which makes it difficult for the local businesses in the beef industry to compete with other firms in the same market. The primary challenge has been identifying the smuggler’s activities and coming up with measures to ensure that they are controlled and that their activities do not in any way affect the country operations. Beef smuggling affects the Chinese economy especially the local businesses who rely on the beef sales to improve their lives (Abdulla, 2015).
The health and safety issues relating to the beef imports which the customs authorities have the responsibilities of addressing. The customers must approve the imports to China and must be of the standards that are required to be considered healthy and safe for use a platform that is commonly evaded by the smugglers in China. Beef smuggling in China may skip the safety process which is a threat to the local population especially in cases where meat products may be contaminated. There have been cases where meat products have been identified to be infected and as a result has been banned and in particular beef from the United States.
Other significant changes that have contributed to the increase in beef products prices includes the urbanisation which has affected the production of the beef products in China. The economic growth in China motivated more people to focus on urbanisation to look for more profitable ventures which made them abandon the production of cattle and this has forced in the increase in prices of beef products over the years. The business decisions are often made when considering the opportunity cost of the alternative business, and due to the various opportunities that the country provides, the beef sector has been affected. Central planning era before 1980 was the primary focus for the Chinese beef sector, and this led to the production of beef products in high quantities, but this has changed over the years given that households have reduced output and rearing of cattle.
Human smuggling in China
Human smuggling is unethical and over the year’s cases of human smuggling in China has increased. The increased smuggling in China has been as a result of increased cases of prostitution and forced labour. The outflow trafficking in China has focused more on the shipping of individuals from China to other areas such as North America, Middle East, Latin America, and Europe as well as in Africa and the population that has mainly been affected has been women and children. Due to the large population in China, there have been cases where Chinese children have been trafficked to other countries for individual monetary gains. On the other hand, there has been the inflow of the human trafficking cases in China especially from countries such as Ghana, Korea, Russia, Vietnam as well as Myanmar among others where they are either exposed to the forced labour or even sexual exploitation. China is one of the most industrialised countries in the world and is the hub for most industries especially due to the availability of cheap raw materials (Yik-Yi Chu, 2011). Most companies across the globe either have established operations in China or sources some of their raw materials from China. To ensure that they retail low-cost production to maximise their profits, companies have focused more on seeking cheap labour which has further fueled cases of human trafficking to make sure that the cost is controlled.
There have been clear efforts from the Chinese authorities and the United Nations to help in eliminating the cases of human trafficking which has increased in China over the years. One of the main provinces that have profoundly been affected by the cases of human smuggling has been Fujian which has recorded increased cases of human smuggling. This has contributed to the growth of human smuggling criminal syndicate in China which earn huge revenues at the expense of others (Choi, 2014). The United Nations report shows that annually over 500,000 illegally leave China to seek for other opportunities across the borders in an illegal manner. However, this number is not comprehensive given that there are people who still leave China for other countries even without the necessary documents and therefore there are no records in regards to the outflow of population from China to other nations. The same case applies to the continued inflow in China illegally for women and other who are either exposed to forced or cheap labour as well as prostitution. However, the young women who are mainly affected are predominantly between the ages of 17-25 and mostly emanates from the neighbouring countries. Through various trafficking activities, women have either been exposed to the illegal adoption, forced marriage or even sexual exploitation. Furthermore, there has been increased cases when Chinese men have been recorded top have married to the women from the Vietnamese origin which has resulted from the human trafficking. To some extent, women often leave their home countries to China where they are assisted by their friends and other parties to seek for other opportunities in China, and this has been a major issue.
Human smuggling is unethical and affects the country social composition. Even though young children are smuggled to and from China, this is mainly done for adoption purposes. Increases cases of adoption of Chinese children to other parents in other countries has increased notably with the long-standing regulation on the number of Children that individuals are supposed to have in China which has increased cases of human smuggling (Neumann, 2015). In China, there are at least 500 human smuggling cases that are detected on an annual basis, but the figure could even be higher given that most of the smuggling cases are not detected, and at the same time they are neither recorded. Gender and age are some of the factors that are the primary focus of the decision-making process relating to smuggling given that this is done for different reasons. Children are either smuggled for adoption purposes while the adults are either exposed to cheap or forced labour and sexual exploitation. There have been increased cases of forced labour in China, and this has mainly emanated from the cross-border smuggling of individuals in the long run (Balarezo, 2015).
Human smuggling is an organised crime which has affected China for decades and measures to kerb it has proven to be unsuccessful especially given that the changes in technology have equipped smugglers with the ability to smuggle individuals even without being detected. The exploitation of children, women and Men has been documented in China over the years, and this has also become a point of concern for most stakeholders including the United Nations which is opposed to these unethical and inhumane activities. Globally, human smuggling is a criminal offence, and United Nations has laid measures to ensure that this unethical behaviour is eliminated. Most of the victims of human smuggling are often exposed to harsh and inhumane conditions. The increased cases of human smuggling have been as a result of lack of adequate measures across the borders to regulate the human smuggling, and therefore there is a need for the countries to be vigilant to prevent cases this unethical behaviour (XIE, 2014).
The human smuggling in China is difficult to manage and control mainly due to the size of the country, changes in technology and the use of the complicated transport system. Furthermore, the human smuggling rings in China has formed routes which are difficult to detect and eliminate especially given that they are highly organised and has been in operation for decades. Furthermore, the adjustments of the Chinese transport systems has further complicated the situations since it has motivated the smugglers to adopt new ways of human trafficking making it difficult to detect.
The increased cases of human smuggling is considered as unethical behaviour and has resulted in deaths and mistreatment of individuals while smuggled (Koser, (2008). The smuggling conditions are poor and unhealthy given that they are illegal and therefore the people must use ways that they cannot be detected in the long run. However, human smuggling is a business venture given that the smuggled people often have the price to pay the appropriate price to be smuggled which has increased profitability and often act as a motivation to smugglers. However, in cases of children and women, human traffickers often receive payment from those that they conduct transactions within the long run. The ability to come up with passports that appear legal makes it easier to the people to smuggle other across the border. The changes in technology have equipped the smugglers with the knowledge needed to ensure that their activities are not detected and can ship people from China or into the China. This human smuggling is the unethical practice that negatively affects the moral conduct of the individual and at the same time is illegal and therefore should be avoided.
Smuggling of human beings and the beef products is a major concern for the Chinese authorities. Both have social, economic, political and moral standings of the society. Both affects the morality, safety and health in the society. Human trafficking is an international issue given that it violates human rights and at the same time exposes individuals to harsh conditions during the exit period. In China, the smuggled people are either exposed to forced labour and harsh working conditions or are sexually exploited. On the other hand, the smuggling of beef in China has had economic effects in the country and at the same time represent the national hazard and violates public safety. While some may undergo through the formal procedures undetected, others are smuggled into the country undetected. Therefore, there is a need to control the human and beef smuggling in China due to their adverse effects on the society.
Abdulla, H. (2015). China arrests 17 in Japanese beef smuggling ring. Aroq — Just-Food.Com (Global News), 6.
Balarezo, C. (2015). Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives by David Kyle and Rey Koslowski, eds. Human Rights Review, 16(3), 307-309. doi:10.1007/s12142-015-0364-4
Beato, M. S., Terregino, C., Cattoli, G., & Capua, I. (2006). Isolation and characterization of an H10N7 avian influenza virus from poultry carcasses smuggled from China into Italy. Avian Pathology, 35(5), 400-403. doi:10.1080/03079450600920992
Choi, E. (2014). North Korean Women’s Narratives of Migration: Challenging Hegemonic Discourses of Trafficking and Geopolitics. Annals Of The Association Of American Geographers, 104(2), 271-279. doi:10.1080/00045608.2013.862129
Koser, K. (2008). Why Migrant Smuggling Pays. International Migration, 46(2), 3-26. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2008.00442.x.
Moore, L. J., & Phillips, J. M. (2009). China: Economic, Political and Social Issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Neumann, V. (2015). Never Mind The Metrics: Disrupting Human Trafficking By Other Means. Journal Of International Affairs, 68(2), 39-53.
XIE, K. (2014). The «Missing Girls» From China. (Cover story). Harvard International Review, 36(2), 33-36.
Yik-Yi Chu, C. (2011). Human Trafficking and Smuggling in China. Journal Of Contemporary China, 20(68), 39-52. doi:10.1080/10670564.2011.520842
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