Short Reflections Essay Example
Print and journalism
What does Smith mean when he talks about “media systems”?
According to Smith media system implies the emergence of the newspaper as a print media and as a form of disseminating information from one point to the other. Thus the formation of newspaper was regarded as a media system. The publishing media began to develop rapidly after the abolition of the tax system that was used so as to limit the legal number of printers. However despite the taxes imposed on the print media the newspaper developed as a result of the expansion of trade, the emergence of complex economies and the growth of the political class. The proceeds from taxation were used by the government to bribe newspaper officials so safeguard the official interests. The distribution of the newspaper was highly dependent on the coffee houses. However, improved infrastructure through roads and rails also helped in the distribution process of the newspaper leading to its development. The newspaper attracted a wide range of audience and therefore it was important that it was packaged in a way that was appealing to its general audience. Initially the postal system undertook the task of distributing newspapers which was mainly used by wealthier readers. There was also the presence of street hawkers who engaged in the delivery of the newspapers in large towns. As population expanded and the development of businesses dependent on the advertisement through the print media so as to reach the desired customers. Journalism is dependent on the availability of the sources of news. Newspapers are not a reflection of reality but rather the comprehension of the likelihood of its sources. With the emergence of wire services collection of information was made easier. Thus through the newspaper system political, social and economic information was able to be passed to its desired audience (Curran & Woollacott 1977).
Are there any parallels to be drawn between the impact of the printing press on society and later/current technologies?
The emergence of the newspaper as a media system created a lot of impact to the society in general. The newspaper divided the society into wealthier readers and the middle class readers. The wealthier readers were able to receive home delivery through the use of postal services while the middle class readers acquired newspapers from the street vendors. The wealthier readers encompassed the royal class and the political class. The political class were due to their privileges were able to bribe the editors and journalists to write information that was in the favour of the political class so as to protect them. Initially printing of the newspaper was only done by a master printer that was regulated by the government through imposing of taxes. This made the printing process to be slow and limited to only a few copies. However with the advent of new technology newspaper printing was made easy and also printing was done in bulk. The new technology printing also enabled businesses to advertise and reach their desired consumers. The collection of information was also made easier through the wireless services unlike when the newspaper relied on certain journalists with certain skills to collect information and usually the information reached when it was too late due to absence of technology. Through the use of current technology in the printing press business have developed as they are able to advertise and also a large number of individuals get information (Curran & Woollacott 1977).
Photography, cinema and games
Referring to Jurgenson, reflect on how the idea of temporary photography sits with the fundamental purpose of photography technology ?
According to Jurgenson pictorial works are usually a reflection of the television technology.Artwork is considered as a system of relationships as opposed to a fixed object. Thus with the use of television technology the production work is regarded as a system rather than pictorial work that is being broadcasted. Television technology as a form of temporary photography engages in still photos therefore there is lack of relationship as a form of interaction between the photos and the audience/viewers. There is no human interaction between the television photography with the viewers. Television photography consists of a distinct, perpendicular white band on a void, shadowy background on a television monitor that is usually created by twisting the television’s monitor image with the use of a magnet. The image is generally conceptual; motionless that is situated within a television set. Temporary television photography is contrary to the photography technology that creates a relationship between the image and the viewer of the image. However in television photography there is lack of interaction between the images set on the television and the viewer. This is due to the fact that the viewer does not participate in any way with the still images being set on the television. The television technology fails to create systems of relations within which the viewers acquire their role as co-creators (Wilson, 1970).
Reflect on the Wilson reading and the concept of “unfinished TV”
According to Jurgenson, participatory TV is eternally incomplete rather than a appreciated pictographic work. This is due to the fact that its good-humored structures attract the viewer into a particular physical relation. It also separates the gallery viewers who are still spectators and alienated from the pictorial works as subjects from the substances. Thus the viewers exert no form of direct control with the images. Thus the concept of unfinished TV is brought about by the fact that there is lack of direct interaction between the still pictures and the audience. The audience is not in a position to relate with the pictures or in any way control them while the pictures on the other hand is not able to relate with the viewers thereby creating the concept of unfinished TV. Thus the television technology only uses motionless photography system and does not put into account the usefulness of the interaction processes between the images and the viewers (Wilson, 1970).
Referring to Gregg, reflect on the ways that communication technology has changed the way we work from both employees’ and employers’ perspectives
According to Gregg (2011) the online culture forms a situation whereby employees or employers in search for flexibility decide to work from home. The online culture of work comes with psychological cost, family issues and social concerns. The emergence of the new online technology creates a feeling of unsteadiness, instills fear as employees face the unstable environment of an unbalanced employment. The situation is further elevated by what is termed as email monitoring, online performance appraisal. It is argued that online culture creates a variety of opportunities to work but it also creates a lot of demand on the part of the family. This is due to the fact that one is required to work for long hours through the online system. This can end up to dysfunctional family as employers and employees end up neglecting their family responsibilities and roles for the sake of work. For instance it is believed that for employees or employers who work from home there is lack of intimacy between them and their respective partners. For working parents, online technology is an attractive form of expediency. The amplified prospective to engage in work from the comfort of their homes generates a feeling to the number of fruitful hours per day. Through the use of the online technology the employers are exempted from the role of the provision of infrastructure to their employees on the hours worked and a binding contract. This devolves both the expressive and realistic costs involved.
Online technology has also been faulted for encroaching on the intimate lives of both the employer and the employee in regards to the social scope that saturate proficient jobs. With the current use of the face book technology there is no respect for individual’s sense of privacy. Hence it becomes difficult to differentiate between work and social networks. For instance employees may spend a lot of their time on social networks rather than the work that they are meant to complete and meet deadlines. Thus Gregg (2011), outlines that as far as the online technology creates a lot opportunities for both the employees and employers it also comes with psychological and social ills. Even though there is a sense of flexibility that usually attracts employers and employees to change from boardroom to bedroom (Gregg, 2011).
List of References
Gregg, M. 2011, Working from Home: The Mobile Office and the Seduction of Convenience” in Work’s Intimacy. Polity.
Wilson, J.1970, Participation TV: Videogame Archaeology and New Media Art” in Swalwell, M. & Wilson, J. (eds) The Pleasures of Computer Gaming: Essays on Cultural History, Theory and Aesthetics. McFarland
Curran, J., Gurevitch, M. & Woollacott, J. (eds) ,1977, Technology and Control: the Interactive Dimensions of Journalism» in Mass Communication and Society. Open University Press
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