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A history of employment relationships in Australia. Question and Answer Essay Example

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Identify some ‘high profile’ examples of racism directed at Indigenous Australians that you are familiar with, through the media or other sources. Research has is that three out of four people of Aboriginal origin have experienced discernment when accessing health care thus not being treated for diagnosed disease in its early stages when treatment is usually effective

What do such examples tell us about the “everyday” racism that Indigenous Australians experience, and how it affects their health? Unfair treatment and race-based exclusion are frequently demonstrated in behaviors that express hate, abuse, and violence and when it persists, it imposes stress disorders to those affected.

For Indigenous Australians, what do you think are some of the major differences between using mainstream health services and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services? One does not access health services to the expected level when Aboriginal community health services as there is the low share of the mainstream programs.

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Reflect on the definition of a ‘community’ by Zakus and Lysack (1998) and the summary by Laverack (2007, Chapter 2). Consider the diversity of individuals and groups within a geographical area such as your neighborhood, what problems might the neighborhood’s diversity create in the representation of the community’s members in health programs? A society revolves around representing itself, that is who has the right to speak thus hindering complete representation in health programs.

Consider Laverack’s ladder of community-based interaction (2007, Chapter 2) and with this in mind describe the key steps you have taken or would take. The key steps that help to escalate community empowerment include personal action, partnerships, social and political action thus help aggravate people from individual to communal work.

How may you approach what do you consider the best points of entry for practitioners working with communities and how might this affect the success of a program?  A practitioner needs to identify constraints that a community faces and come up with ideas that help solve potential problems. Understanding your subject helps them feel involved and will embrace the program as their own. Therefore they won’t feel it’s levied to them by an external factor.

Reflect on the definition of community capacity by Labonte and Laverack (2001a). Does this reflect your definition of community empowerment? Capacity building replicates and defines empowerment as it embraces participation in community health elevation.

How might you use it to foster empowerment in your current workplace or community?  Community capacity helps to monitor performances into an individual driven action engrossed on creating awareness and improved ability to accomplish goals.

.Legislation as a health promotion method can be executed to enforce positive behaviors. However, some behavior isn’t improved even if the target population is reached example due to illiteracy and language barrierChapters 2 and 3 in Gottwald and Goodman-Brown (2012), and Chapter 6 in Laverack (2014) on the theories and models of health promotion. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches in practice when working with diverse communities. Nutbeam’s short text (2010), Review

How would you reliably select the most useful theories and health promotion models for your work? Feel free to draw on your own experiences. The best way to choose a productive model is by understanding the outcomes and interventions and if it impacts your subject positively.

Raising awareness and developing the skills of individuals, groups, and communities is an important aspect of health promotion practice. Read and review Chapters 5 and 7 of the Gottwald and Goodman-Brown text (2012) on social marketing and mass communication; Chapter 5 in Corcoran (2013) on information technology in health communication; and the paper on health literacy by Nutbeam (2000). Which strategies do you think would be effective in health programs in your community to increase awareness, motivate and develop the skills of people in diverse communities? Organizational communication through seminars and community communication using radio, debates would be a good medium for creating awareness on healthy living.

The Learning Resources in this module discuss the most effective ways of preventing the onset of chronic disease through influencing risk factors, policy, and structural constraints. From the assignment resources, read the paper by Swinburn et al. (1999) on the importance of the concept of an ‘obesogenic environment.’ Eating healthy diets and engaging in physical exercises are ways to prevent chronic diseases in our societies.

What role do you think identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions has in preventing overweight and obesity in society? You’re encouraged to draw from your experiences and observations. The obesogenic environment helps in fuelling the analysis and identifies problems in various stages of reducing obesogenicity of the current setting.

The readings in the Learning Resources for this Module provide relevant information on the different stages and settings used in disease screening and surveillance. Settings include schools, workplaces, and the community (see Talbot and Verrinder, 2013, Chapter 4, pp. 113-120 and Laverack, 2013, pg. 174). What is the suitability of surveillance systems and screening programs to address non-communicable disease (NCD) health problems? Explain using a public health example. Using screening programs to address communicable diseases aids in developing mechanisms that ensure marginalized communities have resources allocated to them in preventive practice.

Read the case study of the ‘in-motion’ program in Canada (Laverack, 2007, Chapter 7) to increase physical activity, which presents the constraints of focusing your intervention on a specific behavior and Baum’s (2011) opinion that these types of interventions have led to inequalities in health. Look also at the World Health Organization’s global action plan for the prevention and control of NCDs (2013 — 2020). What contradictions do the case study material from Laverack and Baum raise regarding professional practice when applying behavior change in disease prevention? According to Laverack, professional practice while addressing NCDs offers an articulate and assertive platform that empowers practitioners to be agents of change. Baum, on the other hand, points out the inequality gap between the most and least deprived in the society in accessing health care

England (2012) compares and contrasts two commonly used strategies to promote health as a part of secondary disease prevention: behavior change and empowerment. The paper by Porcheret, et al. (2014) describes a complex trial intervention to enhance behavior change and self-management support for people with osteoarthritis. When would behavior change be more efficient? Behavioural change mainly focuses on lifestyle behaviors that impact on health thus being the best preventive approach.

When would empowerment be more effective? Empowerment model is useful when an individual is taking control of his health within his environment.

Talk about the different circumstances in community health when one strategy would have preference over the other. Empowerment model would be more effective in a community as it involves critical action at a personal level, unlike the behavior change which ignores factors in the social environment.

What are your professional preferences in working to promote health and prevent disease when choosing between these two strategies? Explain. As a health practitioner always consider preferences that empower individuals to take action for their health, that which fosters public health leadership and creates sustainable health systems. 

Look at the World Report on Disability (2011) which has assembled the best evidence to improve the lives of people with disabilities, and read page 114 on community-based rehabilitation (CBR). The World Health Organisation’s strategy for rehabilitation (2004), describes community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in more detail. Drawing from the readings and your own opinions and experiences, discuss how community-based rehabilitation (CBR) a key strategy within general community health for the rehabilitation and social inclusion of people with disabilities, can be used in disease prevention. Community-based rehabilitation and the public community health for restoration work together for a common goal which is the prevention of illness for all including the disabled people. This is achieved by providing supportive, preventive health care to prevent illness.

In the editorial in The Lancet (2012) on self-management, relating to the advantages of self-management to support individuals in gaining confidence and acquiring the skills to recognize warning symptoms, take medication, and decide on the treatment that is best suited to them are discussed. Injury, for example, is a leading cause of death and disability. Additionally, read the paper by Bassett and Prapavessis (2007) on a home-based physical therapy intervention, and Collins, et al. (2004) in regard to the prevention of back injuries of nursing staff in nursing homes. How might self-management help to limit the effects of a condition and enhance a person’s quality of life by involving the key stakeholders? Explain using an example. Proper self-management has been used to limit effects of a condition in a person. This requires a combined team effort from patients, families, community and medical physicians. An example of proper management includes patient home care of terminally ill patients. Caring for such patients needs the combined effort from all stakeholders to overcome the complexity of the situation.

The bottom-up approach allows people to be prepared in case of emergencies through providing prior knowledge to an emergency before it strikes. It is an appropriate approach especially when disasters can be predicted and are unstoppable. After reading the Learning Resources in this Module, when would a bottom-up approach be more suitable for orchestrating community preparedness and response?

. A top-down approach would be acceptable in a national security disaster that requires top level securityWhen would a top-down approach to health emergency preparedness and response be more appropriate?

The community should be involved in all procedures to be better prepared in times of disasters as relevant information is usually provided. What would the role of the community be in either situation?

When communities are involved in emergency preparedness and response this can be used as an opportunity to build capacity and an opportunity for empowerment. How well are the principles of community engagement, capacity building, and empowerment applied to health emergency preparedness and responses in the readings for this module? These principles are applied to understand how emergency preparedness and environmental health programs can deliver needed services and to mobilize partnerships in the society.

What steps should be taken to ensure community involvement? Community involvement can be achieved through various measures including understanding community needs and generating public interest in emergency preparedness.