Short answer and essay Example

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Short answer and essay

Short answer and essay

Question one

Ethical and moral are often mistakenly used interchangeably people thinking that they can be used to distinguish between good and wrong. However, there is a distinction between the two. Ethics is derived from Greek word “ethos” meaning character. Thus, it is concerned with what an individual is needed to do to lead a good life. It mainly focuses on virtues that an individual requires to lead a good life including courage and honesty. On the other hand, moral is derived from Latin word “mores” which means customs and socially acceptable practices in a given community. It is concerned with how individuals get along together. It is about the mutual relationships for the mutual well being of individuals living or working together. The similarity between the two is that they are both required to lead a good life either personally or together in ways that help flourish each other. They are both important in individuals.

Question two

Elliot Jacques left a legacy by carving out the theory of Requisite Organization. He was trying to establish the art of ordering human affairs through the scientific foundations. He accomplished this by constructing the theoretical framework on the world which he termed as five dimensional. It included three spatial dimensions and also two temporal ones. This enabled a radical reconceptualization of the world by introduction of the measurement of the fourth dimension. This fourth dimension, according to Jacques, was the unfolding of the sequential time. He argued that introduction of a fifth dimension could lead to a total revolution in behavioral sciences. The fifth dimension is the time span of the locomotion that is intentional goal directed. Throughout his career, his ideas varied from dogma of the grand theory to specific prescriptions of the scientific implementation. Requisite organization argued that there are discontinuous levels in work complexity in all human organizations. The premise is that individuals are known to mature along predetermined pathways in all their cognitive processing.

Question three

Theory agency theory is faced with various criticisms and critiques. It has made a great contribution in management and organizational research and yet it is very controversial. One, research is evident that agency problem is real and a wide range of research conducted has failed to come up with ways of mitigating the problem. A review done to examine the influence of independent directors on boards found no influence on the performance of the company. Separating leadership roles of board chairperson and CEO also did not influence corporate performance. The positivist view of agency theory has also been criticized for being minimalist according to micro economists; it is tautological and lacks the required rigor. Moreover, the overly simplistic assumptions of the theory do not reflect the environment of the real world. Empirical research has failed to support its basic tenets. Other critics argue that it does not make significant contributions to management and organization theory and research.

Question four

Ethical problem is a situation that requires a person or even an organization to choose between two possible alternatives that require evaluation as right (Deckop 2006). Yes, the easy is about ethical problem. Jacques attempted to establish a scientific foundation for the art of ordering affairs of human beings. He also came up with the theory of requisite organization which composed of two theoretical premises. The first one was that there are discontinuous levels in work complexity in all human organizations. He extended this research suggesting that discontinuous levels existed in all human organizations at three months, an year, two, five, ten, twenty and fifty years. The second one is that individuals mature along predetermined pathways in all their cognitive processing capability. These two premises argued that complexity of work can be measured by time. Alternative methods of information processing correlated with the discontinuous levels of complexity of work in human social organizations.


Deckop, J. R. 2006. Human resource management ethics. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Pub. Inc.