Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay Example

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases 5

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Their Effects during Pregnancy

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the former years were commonly referred to as venereal diseases. These diseases are caused by groups of microorganisms that are infectious and mainly transmitted through sexual intercourse with infected persons. They are at times responsible for burdensome, costly physical and psychological problems that are at times irreversible. In the past, only three types of the STDs and Chancroid were well known but more have recently been included. It is estimated that over 333 million STDs that are curable are contracted annually in a year. In USA for instance, they are the diseases that are frequently reported especially among the young population aged between 12 and 35 years of age. This matter has often being neglected as a public priority especially among the youth and pregnant mother who face adverse effects as a result. This paper will focus on the effects on the maternal child health and other related elements and further address on the professional discipline involved in the bane through the usual health care responses (Sheetal, 2008).

To begin with, the consequences of the STD infections are not always obvious at birth. Expectant women who contract bacterial STDs like gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Syphilis during their pregnancy often are affected with acute salpingitis. This is as a result of the infection spreading to the ovarian/tubal abscess. This condition is often difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. Expectant women who also contract this infection disseminated infection especially towards the later pregnancy stages. In addition, the disease is associated with spontaneous septic abortion and premature rapture of the membranes and infections of the placenta. Common complications for example genital infection and conjunctival eyes also occur after the baby is infected during birth as it goes through the birth duct. If not recognized and treated the infection causes cornea perforation if not the infection of the whole eye and disseminated infection (S Mullick, 2005).

Active infection of Chlamydia by the expectant woman often leads to the baby being infected with the disease during birth by 50 %. There is a 40% chance that the baby may also contract conjunctivitis and a 20% risk pneumonitis as a result of maternal C trachomatis. Infants that are born of mothers who are infected may develop chlamydial ON however it is less severe compared to gonococcal ON. The mothers with the infection often end up contracting cervicitis and discharge in the cervics. If left untreated, Syphilis could result in still births and preterm births and low birth weight. The disease may also cause congenital infections in most proportions of the infants that survive. It is believed that Syphilis in pregnant mothers in the developing countries is a causal factor of perinatal morbidity. The disease is also associated with causing intrauterine growth retardation. The mothers having this disease in the earlier pregnancy stages end up having high non-treponemal test titres (Jarmulowicz, 2000).

Pregnant women who have the Human papilloma Virus experience speedy growth of warts in the genitalia. The virus often ends up affecting the larynx of the baby and results in laryngeal papiliomatosis. This can lead to repetitive operations that are aimed at removing the warts as the warts are bulky thus leading to breathing problems due to the obstruction of the air ways. The diseases are also often associated with other complications at birth. For instance, genital harps is associated to cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine, neonatal and preterm delivery. This is as a result of the transmission of the virus through the placenta. Babies born of mothers with hepatitis B may not have any complications at or during birth but they later in their adult life develop liver cancer and cirrhosis. Other severe effects of the STDs during pregnancy include; ectopic pregnancies and tubal infertility which have recently become very common (Your Health).

The health practitioners have gone along way in forging and implementation of measures towards the prevention and cure of the effects of STDs on pregnancy. This includes the laboratory diagnosis in order to confirm the STIs aetiology and the related symptoms. Methods such as the grain strained virginal smears have been implemented to facilitate the screening for the T vaginalis. The health practitioners have gone a long way in the development of drugs that are able to prevent the infection of children at birth. Many areas that are perceived to have the highest prevalence of STDs have received interventions including the creation of awareness on the use of condoms as a preventive measure to curb the spread of the infections to the child and the pregnant mother
(Jarmulowicz, 2000).

In conclusion, it is vital for women and men to take great precautions in avoiding sexually transmitted diseases. Most of this are life threatening not only to the mother but also to the baby. Proper treatment after diagnosis has to be effected if at all serious risks are to be avoided. This should however be done by qualified practitioners in order to avoid the risk of injuring the fetus and the mother as this stage is critical for both of them.


Sheetal M, (2008). Impact of the Sexual Revolution:
Consequences of Risky Sexual Behaviors. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons Volume 13 Number .

Your Health, Accessed on the 11th of September, 2011 from;

S Mullick, D. W.-J. (2005). prevalence, impact on pregnancy outcomes, and approach to treatment in developing countries. Sexually transmitted infections in pregnancy , 3-10.