Self-Managed Learning

The report has information on how self-managed learning is used to improve the lifelong development of a person. It includes evaluating the self-managed learning approaches and strategies where personal and professional development can be used for learning and lifelong enhancement. The report will show the major advantages that people have through the self-managed processes and strategies of learning for personal and organizational development benefits. The report end through the recommendation on how to encourage self-managed learning due to the benefits in professional and personal contexts, which guarantee successful lifelong development.


Self-managed according to many theories is the process where a person learn different things in different ways. Learning in this context may occur through the manner in which the people are learning in a diversified environment. Self-managed learning comprises of many activities such as setting goals and priorities in personal and professional lives. People learn from people with different cultures, personalities, behaviour and perceptions among many others. Learning is also through friends, newspapers and people develop personal strategies to learn. Learning can be in short or long terms. For instance, when sitting for an exam, one may learn some information to help pass the exam, presenting the short term learning process. However, long-term learning is also important where people learn skills and knowledge to face the challenges in the environment, the professional and personal environment, as well as the society in general.



  1. Report Relating to Self-Managed Learning

Self-managed learning has been defined as the process in which one person learns in the environment, it can be through different approaches or strategies. There exists different types of learners as will be presented below.

Reflectors: Decisions and learning are mainly through observations. They learn in different environments by observing what works and what does not, which is also a way of filtering what they learn and retain and that; that is not important for retention. They do not participate in the learning processes generally but learn from watching at a close range, and by analyzing situations through interviews, questions and questionnaires to empower the learning process.

Theorists: Theorists are the people that learn through engaging in theoretical research approaches. That is; something has to be proven and factual to be true, they learn through ensuring the knowledge, and skills they have learned are true. The learning processes of theorists is through making sound decisions derived from logical models, statistics and other information (Peckham, 1995). They generate inquiries and formulate questions to ensure what they have learned is indeed actual data and reliable and useful in improving their professional and personal development. They reflect on their learning to improve the lifelong development processes.

Pragmatists: The pragmatists are people that learn from different contexts mainly the life situations. These types of learners are risk and chance takers. They need and succeed in using what they have learned to improve their lives. The pragmatist use and apply what they have learned in real life situations through exploring new ways to use what they have learned to improve their lives. Every risk, chance, and problem is an opportunity to learn and yet an opportunity to use what they have learned in such contexts for improving lifelong development.

APPD ctivists: For students, it refers to the learners that learn beyond the existing curriculum and apply new thinking strategies to new contexts. These refers to the learners that learn through critical thinking, solving problems, engaging in competitions and discussions. They are open minded and love challenges, and new opportunities since they include new ways to learn and learning new things that help them face issues in the society. The activists are very outgoing people and also learn through communicating with others.

igure 1: SML LearnersPPD 4PPD 3PPD 2PPD 1F


Based on the figure above, one can engage in self-managed learning through either of the above named learners.

igure 2: SML Levels of LearningPPD 8PPD 7F


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The given features show the areas when one can learn self-managed learning.

Learning Theories

There are two main learning theories linked to self-manage learning, which include reflexive modernization theory and the Kolb’s learning theory. The Kolb’s learning theory stipulates that everybody learns from experience through the life situation and everyday activities. Kolb’s theory presents that reflections are also a part of learning. Learning is also a pattern that involves four main stages, which include planning, experience, reflecting and conceptualizing (Cunningham, 1994).

On the other hand, the reflexive modernization theory assumes that learning occurs through using the advanced modernity processes to allow the learners to reflect on the learning processes through the uncertainties in the different learning environments. The reflexive modernization theory is practiced in about six stages, as they include the consideration of what happened, feeling involved in the learning process and evaluating the total experience of the learning process.

Analysis is also a stage that involves reflexive learning defined through the process of making sense through the comparison of theory and practice. What one has learned is also defined through the conclusion and also learning through the action plan of what to do with the information learned.


  1. Approaches to Learning

Research: Research is a learning process attained through the information given in the university, college and the work place also. That is; people are taught through the processes of learning how to conduct research and learn from the research. People learn different learning techniques to gain information and use the information for lifelong development.

Seminars and Conferences: When one attends a seminar or a conference, they experience different things and still learn different things to improve their lifelong development. The people learn in presenting their knowledge and learning about others and what they know to improve the learning process. In such a case, it is clear that people learn through experience, observations and reflections. This types of learning processes help in life long development of professional and personal experiences (Peckham, 1995).

Social Networks: Social networks include sites such as the twitter, Facebook and many others. People learn from friends as they chat and discover new things. That is; each has a new thing to offer to the other including learning how others failed or become successful to learn from their experiences and other ways. The other main social network is given through the internet, which is the ultimate learning process.

Internet: The internet is a learning platform with information such as articles concerning strategic, management and risk management studies articles that people could learn from. The knowledge in this articles can be acquired to improve the professional and personal development of the people in major environments. Thus, the self-managed learning process presents that this are the main contexts to learn new information that is used to develop other areas of their lives (Bard & Elaine, 2000).

Secondments: This is the process in which people assume different roles in the company, where one’s diversified skills are used to advance their personal skills and professional skills. Thus, the people learn different skills when engaging in different responsibilities.

Interviews: The interview is a self-managed learning process for the learners where they learn how to present themselves, and their skills on the interview sheet. The people also learn some of the skills they need both personally and professionally to grow.

News groups: The news groups have numerous online discussion forums to ensure the discussions that people have help in providing new information that everyone can learn from (Sutherland & Crowther, 2008). These forums include information regarding different issues that lead to the lifelong development of their skills professionally.

Figure 3: Leaning Approaches

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  1. Measuring Learning Effectiveness

Personal assessment skills are used to measure the effectiveness of learning. This includes assessments such as exams. That is performance tests, projects and even in the work place areas among many others.

Planning is also a major process of learning used to measure the effectiveness of learning. It helps individuals to learn to expect uncertainties and prepare for it. The self-managed learning process helps individuals to learn how to solve problems that may occur. When one is prepared for uncertainties, it presents they are self-managed and are learning. This helps to improve personal and professional development (Lizzio & Keithia, 2005).

Organization is also a key process to help in improving the learning process. This helps in learning what to prepare and expect to improve their developments. It increases the efficiency in the learning process and attaining set skills and goals.

Evaluation is the last step to measuring the learning effectiveness. It helps in controlling what one has learned in the different learning cycles.

TASK TWO: Life-Long Learning in Personal and Professional Context

The lifelong learning processes is attained through the continuous learning processes that also help in the professional development (Cunningham, 1994). Learning occurs in different contexts as discussed below:

Self-Directed Learning: It emphasizes on the instructional methods of learning to include the personality characteristics of the learners. It increases personal responsibilities for the learners as they learn to deal with uncertainties and problems in the environment among others.

Professional Development Continuation: The continuation of professional development of skills. The continuation of professional development through learning new skills and acquiring new and diversified knowledge to ensure they become better in the different professional fields. However, one requires to set goals they need to pursue to help improve lifelong professional development (Bard & Elaine, 2000).

Linking higher education with the industry: Higher education helps in improving the skills one need to meet the objectives needed to succeed in the professional industry that one is pursuing. Thus, when education is linked to an industry one learns the skills needed to succeed. They learn how to solve problems in the given field and benefit them in their set preferred industries. Thus, when learning one must ensure that the higher education will be of use to their professional and personal development.

Further education: It also increases the lifelong development of individuals through personal and professional development. That is; one may realize that gaining some information in another industries, or how some cultures behave will help them succeed in their chosen industries. Further education also impacts one with additional knowledge and skills that helps one perform better leading to possible promotions in the business, mainly when one has the capability to perform different roles (Lizzio & Keithia, 2005).

Prior Learning Recognition: This is presented when individuals learn to develop realistic analysis to ensure what they have learned is acquired and retained. That is; one has to analyse the skills they have learned in the past, to learn what they need to learn in the past or improve for the lifelong development in the future.

Apprenticeships: This is where learning is given in the form of experience in different industries or the main industry one aims to purse. An apprenticeship provides individuals with lifelong personal and professional development through providing them with opportunities to learn what is needed to succeed in the chosen industry. It provides learners with the appropriate training to help them succeed in professional development.

Transfer Schemes: This is beneficial in increasing the credit accumulation of a learner. That is one must have some specific qualifications in terms of educational knowledge, skills and other credits to assume a new institutions. These is one of the main factors to ensure that they have sufficient knowledge and training to succeed in the pursue field.

TASK THREE: Self-Managed Learning Benefits Evaluation

Self-managed learning has enabled individuals to attained improved personal learning through the challenges and problems they have to handle, where they learn new skills and abilities that help them perform better by assuming roles in the organizations. It includes engaging in the structured learning process to ensure they learn in different horizons and environments. Self-managed learning has armed the learners with the skills to undertake new roles and handle new and challenging problems as they are highly prepared for challenges and new roles and they are more productive, which is also beneficial to the company.

Self-Managed learning has also increased the skills levels that the learners possess. For instance, learners highlight they skills they want to learn, mainly those that make them better in their industries and businesses. The benefits are not only in their professional and personal develop but also in the organizations they work, and generally the fields they pursue. The individuals learn skills they have not learned, and those they have learned, where now they are equipped to attain and learn new goals and skills.

Gaining feedback from other people, positive or negative also helps one to identify that they are learning. Feedback points out where one has succeed in learning certain skills and the skills they need to learn. Thus, it can be used to assess what one has learned and what they have not learned. Feedback may derive from teachers, business managers, colleagues, coaches, associates and mentors among many others.

Learning has its accomplishments and disappointments, where both are key factors in effective self-managed learning. Thus, one has to identify their achievements and failures during the learning process. Thus, this helps in ensuring one has a view on what they need to improve on for the future success. This can be attained through increased learning either structured learning or experiential learning or through feedback among many others (Sutherland & Crowther, 2008).

Recommendation and Conclusion

Self-managed learning is the process in which the people are highly responsible for their lifelong learning and development. Learning to learn through self is important as it has a way of increasing confidence and create strategies and ways where people learn to learn to participate in other learning activities in their lives. Thus, as presented above, self-managed learning is an effective process that triggers flexibility and resilience in learning and enables different people to deal with change and uncertainty.

It is recommendable for students and others to engage in self-managed learning. This may include engaging in the self-managed learning programmes to foster strategic processes of learning and assess its progress. It is beneficial as presented in the report for personal and professional development.


Bard, M. & Elaine, M., 2000. Mentoring and self-managed learning: Professional development for the market research industry. International Journal of Market Research, 42(3), p. 255.

Cunningham, I., 1994. What is self-managed learning. In: Gower Handbook of Management Development. s.l.:Gower Publishing.

Lizzio, A. & Keithia, W., 2005. Self‐managed learning groups in higher education: Students’ perceptions of process and outcomes.». British Journal of Educational Psychology , 75(3), pp. 373-390.

Peckham, M., 1995. Self-Managed Learning Theory and Practice. Management Development Review, 8(4), pp. 23-26.

Sutherland, P. & Crowther, J., 2008. LifeLong Learning Concepts and Contexts. 2 ed. London & New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.