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Designing three swords A, B, C


diagram is shown in the figure below. Fe-C phaseThe starting material for producing the swords were three rectangular bars with the dimensions of 40 mm * 100 mm * 1000 mm, whose steel material were eutectoid at about 0.76 wt% carbon and their position in the . hardness and strengthmodifying the material microstructure through heat treatment so to achieve the required (A, B and C) with the final Vickers micro-hardness (HV) of 350 – 400, 550 – 700 and 900 – 950 respectively. This was achieved by cutting and swordsThe microstructure of steel is strongly related to its mechanical properties that are obtained through heat treatment process. The objective of this exercise was design and fabricate three

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diagram (Wang, 2010)Fe-C phaseThe

Materials and Method

The following machines were available for the processing of the steel swords in the workshop:

  • Cutting machine,

  • One CNC machine,

  • C 0A furnace with a maximum working temperature of 1200

  • A bath of cold water.

This work starts with designing the using solid works and before cutting. The shape and dimension of the sword is shown in the figure below. The material thickness is reduced from both sides and the final thickness is 10 mm. The final length and width are 950 mm by 50 mm. Thus, 25 mm of material is removed from all sides. The handle has a width of 32 mm.

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The handle is curved out using the cutting machine as shown in the figure below.

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Fabricated sword

Machining is carried out using CNC machine by use of CAM software such as SolidCam. Finally, the swords as subjected to heat treatment process in ordered to arrive at the required properties.


900 and 950Sword C- Vickers hardness is between

rapidly to 250°C (480°F). At this temperature the sword is held for 100 seconds, then quenched to room temperature in water. austenitic structure. It is then cooled C and held sufficiently long for it to achieve 0900 and 950, the sword is heated in a furnace to the temperature of 740Vickers hardness of between The sword is subjected to heat treatment process. This include heat treatment, quenching and tempering. To obtain

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C and holding at this temperature for 30 minutes or more.0The sword is then tempered by heating it to a temperature of 200

and 400 A — Vickers hardness is between 350Sword

C for 1000sec. This transforms the structure into pearlite. It is then cooled rapidly to room temperature using water. The TTT diagram for this process is shown in the figure below. 0a temperature of 600C. It is then cooled and held at 0 and 400, the sword is first heated to the temperature above euctoid temperature of 740To obtain a structure whose Vickers hardness is between 350

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550 and 700Vickers hardness is between Sword B —

The TTT diagram for this process is shown in the figure below. Canale, Mesquita & Totten, 2008). (C and holding it at this temperature for two and a half hours. Then the sample is cooled rapidly to room temperature. The microstructure formed consist of needles of ferrite in the matrix bianite. The structure formed is bianite 0C and 5000This structure is formed by cooling the sample rapidly to a temperature of between 220

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The Vickers hardness for the material produced corresponds to 550 and 700.



Canale, Mesquita & Totten, 2008). (No transformations occurs after cooling and holding the specimen at 250°C for 100 s since it is still austenite. When it is cooled rapidly to room temperature in water, the microstructure transforms to martensite The sword is subjected to heat treatment process to ensure that the desired properties are achieved. Heat treatment involves three processes that are performed at a sequence i.e. heat treatment, quenching and tempering.


Tempering involves heating the sword to a temperature of 2000C and holding it at this temperature for some time. During this time, the stresses in the metal structure is relieved; this ensures that there is less brittleness but the hardness is maintained. The sword is then cooled in still air. The final Vickers microhardness (HV) of between 900 and 950 is achieved (Canale, Mesquita & Totten, 2008).

The structure is formed due to rapid cooling of austenitic microstructure. Since the rate of cooling is high, diffusion does not occur. However, BCC structure of austenite of iron atoms is distorted to form a body-centered-tetragonal structure like as shown in the figure below.

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BCC to BCT transformation that results in the formation of martensite from austenite. Actually, BCT is just an elongation of a BCC structure along one lattice vector. The structure produce a strongest, hardest and brittle steel (Gilmore, 2015).


the microstructure of the material. The rate of cooling affect the nature of the stresses in the metal structure.heat treatment, quenching and tempering. Tempering relieve In work we designed and justify the fabrication of three swords A, B and C with different Vickers’s hardness. Heat treatment involves


. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International.Failure analysis of heat treated steel componentsCanale, L. C. F., Mesquita, R. A., & Totten, G. E. (2008).

Wang W. (2010). Reverse Engineering: Technology of Reinvention, CRC Press, p. 68

Gilmore, C. M. (2015). Materials science and engineering properties, Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning