Security system design,structure and technology and the impact of climate change Essay Example
Over the last two decades, the world has experienced rapid expansion and dynamic threats from the climate-change effects. Risk management strategies and the resultant security systems may need to respond to the climate-change effects (Talbot & Jakeman, 2011; Nielsen, 2011). Climate change and its variable conditions for satisfying certain performance requirement implies that certain design standards of the building and security system must be complied with. In some instances, it may be relatively expensive to upgrade a building after the construction is completed than it would be to include the standards as part of the design. This signifies the importance of integrating the climate-change threats to the security system during the design phase or the pre-conceptual (Camilleri et al., 2001).
Security systems are open systems that are intended to maintain steady state. Since they are susceptible to external and internal environment, designing the security system centres on managing the external and internal risks. The main challenge is planning, designing and construction of buildings that adhere to the sustainable development principles that perform effectively in terms of the climate (Coole & Brooks, 2014).
The security system’s objective is to integrate security technology, structures, people and procedures with the objective of protecting facilities, within a measurable system. An effective security system manages and facilitates authorized access, as well as deters, detects, delays and promotes response to intrusion or unauthorized access to a facility (Cozens, 2008). The primary function of the security system should also aim to support an organisation’s objectives, as well as support compliance with the relevant standards and codes.
The security system is based on security approach in security design that may result in a security system that addresses the user needs, as well as aligns with the dynamic environmental risks and threats, such as climate change effects (ATSE, 2008). The objective of security system design is to give the designers the standards and criteria for coming up with a range of strategies to provide total protection to the building and its authorised users
(Coole & Brook, 2014).
The design process in itself makes up the security system, as it defines the criteria under which the security technology, structures or layers should be integrated (Young & Leveson, 2014). The layered structures provide layered defence, which augments the confidence level in access controls by offering some level of expanded control. The concept of security in physical layers addresses the external structures, such as walls, fences, buildings, gates and lobbies and the internal structures, such as access control systems. Security technology comprises the devices or software integrated to the security system to protect a facility against unauthorised intrusion (Scagline, 2010). They include computer networks, security locks, surveillance cameras, alarm system, emergency notification, as well as communication devices (Matthews, 2001).
This paper argues that the process of designing security structures and technologies should follow systems approach if it has to address the security needs of the users and to counter the dynamic environmental threats such as the climate change-effects. Accordingly, its explores the objectives of security system design, the security system design approaches, the layering security structures, security technology, impact of climate change and processes of aligning security structures and technology to climate-change effects.
Objectives of security system design
The security system design aims to give the designers the standards and criteria they can use to come up with a range of strategies to offer total protection to the built environment and its authorised users (Paraskevas, 2013).
O’Neill et al. (2009) advises that when creating a design and budget for a facility, the chief principle should be that the physical security becomes fully integrated rather than merely an added requirement. According to Fay (2006), when the physical security is viewed as an add-on to a facility, the costs of implementing it will be higher while the outcome will not be satisfactory. Hence, it is crucial that physical security goals be established and integrated into the design of the facility, as this ensures that the set budget reflects the physical security requirements.
Designing and constructing buildings signifies significant planning and coordination. It is crucial that the security system be a component of a building’s master plan, design with the view of providing a secure build environment. Cooper and DeGrazio (1995) commented that securing a built environment is substantially easier when the security system design is a component of the design phase rather than the construction phase.
Cozens (2008) suggested three basic elements in designing security systems that should be considered for new and existing built environment. They are based on the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) theory, which states that proper design and utility of the built environment leads to reduction of fear crime incidences. The security concept plan integrates regulatory, operational and environmental requirements, as well as the security principle of the CPTED and Defence in Depth (DiD), in the security system’s design. The integration supports effective security designs to be consistent with the physical security structures, security technologies and the impacts of climate change (Coole et al., 2012).
Security system design approaches
The design process makes up the security system as it defines the criteria under which the security processes should be integrated. It also supports the previous or subsequent processes. It should however be understood that the design process does not denote detailed designing of security. Rather, it refers to the methodology used in integrating the security functions into a system (Hunstad & Hallberg, 2007).
The elements of detecting, deterring, delaying and responding have generally been cited to rationalise a security design. In spite of this, the practice may consist of populating such categories with no details on how detection should lead to response (Coole & Brooks, 2014). Hence, a security system should be designed using a causal approach with partial responsiveness to the operational issues, wider design or targeted at a single problem at a certain point in time — such as climate change effects.
An issue within an engineering approach in designing security is focusing on the technology of security. As stated by Jones et al. (2006), the outcome is wastage of resources on systems that may either be counterproductive or have no effect. Hence, it is significant the security system permits security to be proactive in countering risks.
Security system design requires coordination and a multi-disciplinary approach. Incorporating security features to the built environment needs effective communication between the designers, architects as well as all other professionals involved, right from the design phase of the pre-conceptual stage (WBDG, 2007). According to Brooks (2011), no fixed guidelines exist when it concerns designing security systems. In any case, when examining a complex design, it is essential that the key aspects be considered as they assist in identification of the important elements in security system. As stated by Winston (2009), such a critical step enables appreciation to confronting the complexities of the design solution that will eventually address the key design considerations.
Seldon (2012) pointed out that the requirements from the underlying technical, systems or design approaches are often overlooked by users. Instead, the owners’ requests are orientated to the environmental and organisational functionality. Hence, it is the obligation of the designers to understand and operationalise the broad level of environmental requirements. According to Seldon (2012), the environmental goals such as mitigating climate change effects have to be communicated and appropriately defined before starting the design. In some instances, designers need to explain additional details in the design process. Such design goals poses as the benchmark of the measures for successful design.
It is clear that much of the literature pertaining to the security system design and application are mostly focused on the architectural and technical aspects, without adopting a proper systems approach that integrates many security processes. For instance, the design approach proposed by Department of Defense Electronic Security Systems model starts with survey of site, followed by preliminary drawing preparations and afterwards the schematic design phase. Similarly, the mostly used Design and Evaluation of Physical Protection Systems, which was proposed by Garcia (2008), also lacks integration of the start and conclusion in its security system design process.
The security system design should therefore be based on security philosophy, which is a holistic concept that integrates varied layers of informed protection that align with the goals and expectations (Beardsley, 2013). In stating the security philosophy, Brooks (2011) indicated that security risk management, security management, physical security and security technology should guide security (Figure 1).
Figure 1: security elements
Overall, the design, management and maintenance of the security system should aim to meet expectations, such as compliance with the climate change designs and conformity with the legislative obligations and corporate governance. To this end, security system applied an integrated collection of elements, designed with the objective of achieving an objective that is based on plan. The security system should therefore use a balanced approach, as well as consider some level of residual risk. The aim of the security design is to integrate personnel, technologies, policies and procedures into the complex system.
Layering security structures
The layered structures provide layered defence, which augments the confidence level in access controls by offering some level of expanded control. The concept of security in physical layers addresses the external structures, such as walls, fences, buildings, gates and lobbies and the internal structures, such as access control systems. The layers comprise the security zones designated to the security level, which offers the site ranging degree of protective elements, such as electronic, physical and personnel.
Outer layer structures offer protection of the facility depending on the types of facility and the location. Since the location plays a key factor in this respect, the climate-change effects have to be integrated in designing the outer layers. For instance, office building situated in the middle of a city may only have perimeter walls while a manufacturing plant outside the city may commit large parcels of grounds that surround the building.
The perimeter of the protected facility may be the building’s walls, a fence line or property edge. It could also be natural barriers, such as a river, an escarpment, cliffs or a lake, gates, fences or areas with dense vegetation and forests. Whatever the outer structure, the security system design should integrate them into the security system. However, in respect to systems approach, Fennelly (2012) states that none of the outer layers or structures can completely deter, delay, detect or respond to intrusion, as they have to be integrated with the inner layers.
The building and doors in many cases define the end of outer security structures and the beginning of the inner security structures. The doors, windows and buildings delineate the separation between the inner and the outer layers. Inner layers also include the keys, glass, locks, roofs and access controls. Lighting is also an inner layer, adequate lighting minimised the possibility of accidents, as well as deters intruders. With sufficient lighting, the physical structures such as walls, fences and the grounds can be clearly monitored. Further, gates, doors in addition to other entrances have to be well-lit to permit close observation of individuals entering or exiting the building (Zhu, Rieger & Basar, 2011).
Surveillance is attained by incorporating the surveillance cameras and the security personnel into the security system. As a component of physical security design, the purpose of the surveillance should be specified and assessed, against the existing capabilities and environmental needs (Fennelly, 2012). Surveillance can also be achieved using natural surveillance, where by spaces are designed to form the outer layer, which are visible to the authorised users and the security personnel. Strategies include reducing the amount of tall or dense vegetation or creating more open spaces for easy monitoring of activities outside the building.
Security technology comprises the devices or software integrated to the security system to protect a facility against unauthorised intrusion (Scagline, 2010). They include computer networks, security locks, surveillance cameras, alarm system, emergency notification, as well as communication devices (Matthews, 2001).
The locks, or locking devices, include the after-hours locks, day access locks or emergency egress locks. Day locks allow for entry of authorised personnel and may include the card swipe or keypad. After-hours locks are not meant to allow entry frequently, and include the key locks, pad locks, deadbolts or high-security combination. Locks are either electrical or mechanical. Electrical locks us electricity.
The alarms are meant to inform the security personnel or authorised users of intrusion or whether the security structures are functioning appropriately (Oludele et al. 2009). In regards to layered defence, the alarms add to deterring intrusion. They are classed into two, namely the sensors and the controller. The sensors detect the condition of the alarm such as intruder movement and report it to the security personnel. According to Matthews (2001), sensors often detect environmental conditions, such as temperature, moistures as well as vibration.
Vibration sensors are affected by moisture. Additional intrusion devices can detect human motion through measurement of the changes in ultrasound or heat inside a room. Indeed, most intrusion sensors are in actual sense environmental sensors that have been configured to detect human activity (Matthews, 2001). Further, doors are often monitored using magnetic switches, which are mounted on the door.
Cameras and lights serve almost the same function, as they allow the security personnel to detect and see intrusion. Poor lighting or too much lighting may hinder viewing some things, such as trucks (UFC, 2013). The camera lighting should be proper for high security situations. They should also be able to detect movement during high rainfalls or fogs (Matthews, 2001).
Impact of climate change
Recent researches on the security system design, structure and technologies have explored the likelihoods, consequences and risks of climate change effects. Climate change and its variable conditions for satisfying certain performance requirement implies that certain design standards of the building and security system must be complied with (Steenbergen, Geurts & Bentum, 2012). In some instances, it may be relatively expensive to upgrade a building after the construction is completed than it would be to include the standards as part of the design. Therefore, the main challenge is planning, designing and constructing security systems in built environment to counteract climate-change effects (Jentsch, Bahaj & James, 2008).
Camilleri, Jaques and Isaacs (2001) identified the potential impacts of climate change effects to the security system design to include reduced winter space heating and water heating energy, increase overheating load, greenhouse gas emissions, changes in cost of electricity, rise in cases of flooding, changes in wind velocity and increased cost of insurance. It is argued that all these climate-change effects impact the security system.
Warm temperatures due to climate change significantly impact the security system and responding to this change is hence a crucial part of climate-change adaptation strategy. Long, hot and recurrent heat waves have meant that changes have to be integrated into the security structures to reduce heat-related injuries and deaths to the authorised users of protected facilities. In particular, this has meant that natural ventilations have to be designed into the buildings. Wilson and Ward (2009) stated that in some climates, especially those that have low humidity, buildings should be designed to depend largely on natural ventilation. In climates with higher humidity, natural ventilation can serve as practical backup cooling strategy for use during power outages as survivability measures. However, it is critical to note that natural ventilation impacts designing the inner layers, particularly the windows and doors, where they should be left open. This would however reduce the effectiveness of inner layers as it would require increasing the openings for maximum ventilation. Fennelly (2012) argued that the windows, doors and all other openings should remain closed at all times.
The heat gain also affects the effectiveness of alarm systems, specifically the sensors that detect environmental conditions, such as temperature, moistures as well as vibration.
Wilson and Ward (2009) stated that high-efficiency lighting equipment should be used, since the higher the efficiency the less waste heat is generated. This would impact security technologies such as lighting, where high efficiency is achieved by using lighting equipment that give maximum light (Fennelly, 2012).In responding to the heat gains,
To counter the heat gains for a built environment, Wilson and Ward (2009) argued that landscaping should be provided to the built environment. According to Wilson and Ward (2009), vines and trees control heat gain and minimise the cooling demands for a building. Indeed, cautiously designed landscaping helps channel cooling breezes into the buildings to increase natural ventilation. However, the vegetation hinders the effectiveness of outer layers or surveillance. They may obstruct the view of the surveillance cameras or the open grounds. Hence, in designing the security systems, designers and landscape should be engaged at the design or pre-conceptual stage to integrate vegetation or maintain existing vegetation into the built environment.
Drought and water shortages
Climate change triggers precipitation patterns, hence designing for water shortage and drought is a high priority. Usually emergency water-use restrictions are often imposed during water shortage to lessen the impacts of climate change. To this end, water-efficient fixtures and appliances have to be used. These affects security systems that use water structures, such as dug up streams or rivers as the outer layer. Indeed, due to drought the rivers may dry up. At the same time, pumping water into the dug up streams to maintain water level may be restricted. This adversely affects the effectiveness of the outer security layer.
Intense storms and flooding
Wilson and Ward (2009), buildings should be designed to survive extreme storms and floods. Examples of measures include installation of impact-resistant windows, which in security terms adds strength to the inner layers. In mitigating climate-change effects, walls should also be designed to resist uplift. To ensure this, hurricanes strapping in addition to other metal fasteners that offer continuous load path from the foundation to the roof are added. Additionally, walls are anchored. While these serve to mitigate climate change effects, they augment the walls hence boosting the inner layer or security structure.Increased severity of storms is an imminent climate-change effect that positively impacts the security system. As stated by
The severe storms caused by climate change can also cause intense power interruptions that can render security technology, which rely on electricity, ineffective (CCINW, 2010). For instance, storms and drought directly cause power outages resulting in brownouts or blackouts. At this juncture, the alarms, sirens and surveillance cameras will not work. Hence, the building should be designed to have stand-by generators or to use solar energy.
Aligning security structures and technology to climate-change effects
The security design incorporates a range of climate-change effects dependent on the security risk assessment results, the complexity of the built environment, the security structures and the security technologies. The first stage creates the security concept plans that have the necessary security zones. The security concept plans present a performance-based methodology in developing and designing the security system. The concept plan uses risk assessment data to design security layers that range from the perimeter, such as the building site or area, to the inner layers, such as the room, building and cabinet. At this stage, the climate-change effects on the security structure and technologies are taken into account.
To this end, the results of the security concept plans include a description of each site and its structures. Together, they inform of the general functions and the critical operational functions, the draft of the site and the structures, which annotate the varied security zones, the funding cost, the risk management results of climate-change effects and security management plans. Developing the security concept for the structure and technology follows the determination of use of space and the criticalness of the operations (Figure 2). The criticalness should comply with the financial, safety, regulator and climate change threats. The space is afterwards designed with regular iterations to offer effective space based on organisational objectives and need to counteract climate-change effects. Ultimately, the security elements are applied to minimise design limitations and to offer support to operational needs through security structures and security technologies.
Figure 2: design security to integrate structures and technology
The process of designing security structures and technologies should follow systems approach if it has to address the security needs of the users and to counter the dynamic environmental threats such as the climate change-effects. The security system integrates security technology, structures, people and procedures with the objective of protecting facilities within a measurable system. An effective security system manages and facilitates authorized access, as well as deters, detects, delays and promotes response to intrusion or unauthorized access to a facility.
The primary function of the security system should also aim to support an organisation’s objectives as well as support compliance with the relevant standards and environmental effects, such as climate-change effects. Designing the security system to address the user needs as well as to counter climate-change effects is hence essential. In itself, the design process defines the criteria under which the security processes should be integrated. It also offers the methodology for integrating the security functions into a system. The security system should therefore use a balanced approach as well consider some level of residual risk, the security structures, technology and the climate change effects.
The layered structures provide layered defence, which augments of the confidence level in access controls by offering some level of expanded control. The concept of security in physical layers addresses the external structures, such as walls, fences, buildings, gates and lobbies and the internal structures such as access control systems. On the other hand, the security technology comprises the devices or software integrated to the security system to protect a facility against unauthorised intrusion. They include computer networks, security locks, surveillance cameras, alarm system, emergency notification as well as communication devices.
The climate-change effects include reduced winter space heating and water heating energy, increase overheating load, greenhouse gas emissions, changes in cost of electricity, rise in cases of flooding, changes in wind velocity and increased cost of insurance. These effects impact security system design, structures and technologies in different degrees. In regards to warm temperatures, increasing ventilations to a building would reduce the effectiveness of inner layers as it would require increasing the openings for maximum ventilation. Effective security requires that the inner layers such as windows, doors and all other openings should remain secured. The heat gain also affects the effectiveness of alarm systems, specifically the sensors that detect environmental conditions such as temperature, moistures as well as vibration.
installation of impact-resistant windows, which in security terms adds strength to the inner layers. requirentense storms and flooding augment security system strength as they iOn a positive note,Implementing the landscaping, such as including vegetation to an open ground, hinders the effectiveness of outer layers as they obstruct the view of the surveillance cameras or the open grounds.
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