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Since its foundation, security studies represent the international relations’ core and it predominantly specializes with security related issues. With the growing international relation agenda’s complexity especially the rise of environmental and economic challenge, the occurrence of new actors of international relations, as well as the traditional view of security concept, there has been the narrowing down of the security studies. Security entails the protection of property, person, or organization, mainly from attack. The security theory looks at the types of probable attacks, brings awareness of the instigators for attacks as well as your relationships to the motives. The sector is among the fastest growing in the globe and its yearly market in the US is estimated to be $410 billion. There has been the expansion of the industry. The purpose of this paper is to carry out an analysis of two security related job postings and how the jobs relate to the security theory (Harr & Hess, 2010).

Security specialists have been an essential player in the protection of state and federal facility and in the efforts of emergency planning. However, the qualifications of security specialists have greatly been determined at the level of individual agency. All the security specialists are required to possess certain competence in order to attain full level of performance. Competence entails a cluster of related skills, abilities, and knowledge that have an effect on one’s jobs, can be measured against standards that are well accepted, correlate with the performance of the job, and their improvement can be through experience, development, and training. The US DOL (Department of Labor) competence model framework is a framework of organizing that is essential in the identification of industrial-specific competences and skills needed by the workers. The framework comprises of 9 tiers (building blocks) (Sennewald, 2013).

Analysis of Job Description

Compliance and Risk management Advisor

Compliance and risk management act as the advisor the company on matters related to potential risk to the existence and profitability of the company. They identify as well as assess any form of threat, put measures in place for any problem, and make the decision on how they can avoid transfer, or reduce problems. They also advise on other matters such as those touching on customers, reputation, interests of the stakeholders, assets, and employees. Specific task is dependent on the industry where they perform their duties as well as the specialization of their roles. Their salaries range from $95,481 to $115,790 per year although they are entitled to superannuation. They work in the corporate section. Commonly referred to as CARMA, they manage three key areas of the national Portrait Gallery of Australia namely the protective security, risk management, and work health and safety (National Portrait Gallery, 2016).

Their specific roles include acting as the main advisor of the agency and this is in relation to the protective role. Apart from that, they also manage as well as maintain secure and safe environment for work and this is mainly in consultation with the company’s executive team. Apart from that, they also develop, implement, as well as review procedures of security to manage the company’s risk as well as compliance in regard to protective security. They are responsible for planning, designing, as well as ensuring the implementation of the overall process of risk management for the organization. Risk assessment which mainly entails risk analysis and the identification, description, and estimation of the risks that negatively affect the business is another role played by compliance and risk management advisor. They are to conduct a review of risks as well as ensure the maintenance of risk register, reporting on the indicators of risks. He should be an excellent and at the same time cultivate productive relationship of working. Apart from that, he should be result achiever as well as exemplify personal integrity and drive. He should also be a strategic thinker, demonstrating expertise and skill. The qualification include Bachelor’s degree in Security Management, Certificate IV in Investigation, and Certificate IV in Work Safety and Health (National Portrait Gallery, 2016).

Security Manager

The main role of the security manager is to carry out protective security roles that may either be complex or very complex. They have the responsibility of developing, implementing, reviewing, and should be compliant to the policies in the field of security. Apart from that, they also plan, lead, as well as manage numerous physical and human resources and at the same time are responsible for financial management to ensure that the business is attaining its outcomes. They are responsible for team management and play a role in developing and implementing plans for work, set indicators of performance, and review team, individual, and business performance. They also manage the relationships of the key stakeholders by playing a key role in identifying the expectations as well as the concerns of the key stakeholders to ensure the development and the communication of practices and methodologies to ensure the attainment of the outcomes. They make a contribution towards self-improvement as well as professional development in their area of work. They should possess the skill of being a team leader and management. Apart from that, they should be able to set priorities of the work areas as well as manage the flow of work, develop strategies and at the same time evaluate the outcomes o0f the business.

They are responsible for accurate work completion within the stipulated timeframe as well as the required quality. In general, the security manager is responsible for maintaining a safe as well as a secure environment for employees and customers by ensuring the establishment and enforcement of security procedures and policies, and at the same time supervising the security force of the company. Their job duties include updating the knowledge of job by taking part in the education opportunities, ensuring maintenance of personal network, as well as being conversant with professional publications. They should also accomplish the goals of the organization by ensuring the acceptance of ownership and this is mainly by exploring opportunities to ensure that their job have an added value (Department of Defense, 2016).

They should possess the skills of surveillance, management proficiency, informing others, analyzing information, coordination, tracking the expense of budget, dealing with complexity, reporting skill, and handling pressure. He should also be pervasive and be a good communicator.

He should possess job-related training and at the same time a state license. He/she should have completed a program on security training and among the topics covered during the training include security procedures and policies, self-defense, and emergency pre4paredness. Apart from ensuring the completion of the program, he/she is required to have a job-related licensure. It is important for the security manager to possess a degree in security related course such as security management as this will improve a person’s chance of being a security manager. Voluntarily certification is also essential for the security manager and this can be earned through experience (Department of Defense, 2016).

Physical Security Specialist

A physical security specialist conduct numerous duties including devising of the security procedures and policies, budgetary controls and management, management of fire and other system project, security system contracts’ administration, offering support to sensitive investigation, as well as offering education support on security program. Apart from that, they are responsible for overall security of the firm. He should possess a degree in criminal just or other security-related field. The work experience is mainly in the law enforcement or security fields. The key skills include verbal and written communication, interpersonal and analytical skills, team player, and knowledge on guideline and process of security. Other requirements include passing the background checks. He should have knowledge in law and ethics, criminology, and correlation. Apart from that, he can qualify if he has pursued Bachelor’s degree in security management or organizational security management. Among the job duties include inspection, personal reports to the management, recommending changes as well as evaluating changes, and reviewing the information on security clearance. They can also be responsible for procedures of operation especially with the senior management level. He should also asses threat as well as risks, performing inspection, and testing procedures (JEA, 2016). In management position, it is important for the person to possess a Ph.D. in the field related to security. Apart from that, th4e person should have completed the program of certification and this can be through ASIS International. It is important for those lacking academic qualification to have an experience of approximately 9 years (JEA, 2016).

Senior VP, Head of Security Management- Corporate Banking

His main task would involve managing the function of security management as well as the security management team and this would include security management framework, procedures, and policy enforcement. Apart from that, he would be responsible for identifying new threats of security management after changes in technology or new systems’ implantation. Among the key responsibilities would include managing security function on daily basis, developing processes and policies that support the function of security management as well as prevent against security and operational risks (Genesis IT and T P/L, 2016). Apart from that, he would be responsible for embedding the processes and policies of security management. He will ensure the bank is abreast of the developments of the bank in respect of best practices of security management. Other key responsibilities include educating new employees and at the same time updating the current employees on matters and issues of security management. He will also manage, motivate, and supervise team members, provide feedback after monitoring the performance of team members, and ensure that their development is fosters.

The key requirements include 15 years corporate banking experience especially in the banking industry of Australia, senior experience of 10 years in the function of risk management in an institution of finance, especially that related to IT or security management. He should possess a numerical skill of high level, high attention and accuracy to details, strong communication skills both oral written, and experience in front office (Genesis IT and T P/L, 2016).

Security specialist

The individual is to be based in the Canberra division of the company. The individual would work as part of national and local security consulting team on various projects. He is responsible for providing special physical and electronic security design as well as advice to new as well as existing clients across various sectors. Among the skills required include time management, written and oral communication skills, and cost control. The person is required to have an experience of not less than 10 years mainly on project management and technical. He is also supposed to be knowledgeable about the Australian security procedures, policies, and practices. Apart from that, should possess skills in risk management, planning, design, and strategy. The person should be a holder of a diploma/advanced diploma in Bachelor of Science in Justice and Security Studies or diploma/advanced diploma in electronic, electrical or communication or Bachelor of Engineering in Electronic, Electrical or Communication. Among the personal attributes would include self-motivation, working independently, showing initiatives, and team player. The candidate is also required to be a good communicator (Jacob Group Australia Pty Ltd, 2016).


Findings or content and thematic analysis

In all the posts, the applicants are required to possess certain knowledge, skills, experience, qualification, and attributes. Some of the skills in all the posts appear to be similar. Competence model initiative is used to analyze competence and skills in the current study. Industry competence model initiative is utilized to ensure the promotion of comprehension of skill set as well as competencies that are crucial to train and educate a globally competitive workforce (Shippmann, et al. 2000). Competence entails the capacity to utilize or apply set of related skills, abilities, and knowledge needed to successfully perform tasks or ‘critical work functions’ in a defined setting of work (ASIS Foundation, N, d). This model is essential across this study since it can be utilized to compare the various skills and competencies possessed by the candidates.

All the candidates are expected to meet certain expectations of the industry in order to remain competent. All the positions require that a person is parlaying some personal attitude. Apart from that, the model requires that the individuals should be competent academically. In the knowledge aspect, the entire candidates are required to have a comprehension in security, policy, and legislation of such policy (Gilbert, 1978). Almost all the posts require the person to possess certain skills including that of acting as an adviser, communication skills, both oral and written, supervisory skills, team leader, among other skills. He/she is also required to possess the planning skills especially in relation to management of the security of the firm (ASIS Foundation, N, d). Among the attributes that the candidates need to have included the capacity to communicate, team player, professionalism, and providing support to other staff members. All the posts also require the person to have an experience of certain period of time (Savin-Baden & Major, 2013). The candidates are also expected to be qualified especially academically.

Content analysis table



Experience, Experienced

Qualifications, Qualified, Studies




Legislation, Regulation, policy


Advise, Advisor


Plan, Planning

Reports, Reporting

Supervisor, supervise

Strategically, Strategy

Clients, Stakeholders

Develop, Development

Research, Investigation

Team, Teamwork

Professional, Professionalism

Communicate, Communication


Comparative table of job specific skills, knowledge, experience, attributes, and education

Job description 1

Job description 2

Job description 3

Job description 4

Job description 5







  • Security assessments

  • Context specific interests

  • Physical security

  • Protective security – legislative framework

  • Assessing risk

  • Team training

  • Security

  • expertise

security policy formulation

budgetary management

fire system management

  • Australian security policies and procedures

  • Security management

  • Information system knowledge

  • Technical

  • Constructive

  • Physical and electronic security systems

  • Australian security policy

  • Risk management

  • advisory capability

  • consulting

  • investigation

  • management

  • Research,

  • risk reviews and analysis

  • Staff training

  • Stakeholder engagement

  • Risk management

  • Team players

  • Leadership

  • Advisory

  • Problem solving

  • Planning

  • Computer use

  • Analytical/graphical based

  • Resource management

  • Decision making

  • Mentorship

  • Security policy formulation

  • Investigation

  • Security system administration

  • Scoping skills

  • Report writing Financial management

  • Project Management

Threat identification

  • Security management

  • Policy development

  • Training

  • Motivational

  • Coaching

  • Numerical skill of high level

  • Security planning

  • Evaluation of safety and security issues

  • Security management

  • Investigations

  • Training including training analysis

  • Contract management

  • Business continuity

  • Oral and written communication

  • Time management


  • Demonstrated flexibility

  • Self-motivated

  • Proactive

  • Team player

  • Respectful

  • Excellent communicator

  • Innovator

  • integrity

  • Independent

  • Team work

  • Good communicator

  • Flexible

  • Building collaborative relationship

  • Result achiever

  • Personal courage

  • Resilient

  • Persuasive negotiator

  • Impartial

  • Accountable

  • Committed to service

  • Respectful

  • Professionalism

  • Integrity

  • Innovation

  • Teamwork

  • Flexible

  • Teamwork player

  • Professionalism

  • Respect for all

  • Professionalism

  • Integrity

  • Diversity

  • Open and collaborate working environment – team work

  • Teamwork player

  • Integrity

  • Teamwork player

  • Security team growth

  • Self-motivated

  • Show initiative

  • Ability to work in diverse environment


  • Prior experience required in advisory role &/or undertaking security assessments

  • Physical security

  • 6 year work experience

  • Experience in supporting electronic physical security projects and systems

  • Industry knowledge and contacts

  • 15 years corporate banking experience

  • 10 years risk management senior experience

  • Experience of resolving threats of management

  • management

  • Security planning, risk, strategy

  • Project and technical experience

  • 10 year experience

Education / Other

-Security Management Degree

— Certificate IV in Investigation

-Certificate IV in Work Health and Safety

  • Australian citizen

  • Health clearance

  • Security clearance

  • Bachelor’s degrees

  • 10 years of training and education

  • Valid license of driving

  • Professional certification

  • Manufacture certification

  • Professional certification especially with AMAG

  • Certification of FAS/BAS (Fire Alarm System Agent/Burglar Alarm System Agent)

  • Security Science or Engineering Degree

  • Bachelor of Science in Justice and Security or a diploma or higher diploma in electronic, electrical or communication,

Competence Analysis

The DOL competence model framework has the 9 tiers clustered into three levels of competence namely foundational competencies, occupation-related competencies, and industrial-related competencies. In the five job positions, all the candidates were required to possess personal effective competencies (tier 1), attributes such as integrity that one can learn from home, religious affiliation, school, among other places (Homeland Security, 2012). In tier 2, we have the academic competencies and they include critical thinking, reading, and learning, and these are acquired from school. All these are documented in the analysis (United States Office of Personnel Management, 2011). In the tier 3, we have the workplace competencies including the planning, teamwork, and organizing, essential components for the performance of any function which is related to job. An example of industry-related competence is the industry-wide technical competencies including risk management. Almost all the posts provided have this as one of the requirements. Located in tier 6 through to tier 8 are the occupational-related competencies. Finally, the management competencies are in the tier 9 (University of Phoenix, 2014).


Competence model is essential for various key sectors including security. The main emphasis of these jobs is skills and competence. The industrial competence model aims at developing the skills of the workers aligned with competences required in varied workplace (White, 1959). The models top tier represents occupational specific and management competences mainly attained through education programs. Degrees commensurate associated with these competences include, associate degrees, certificates and advanced degrees, and industry-recognized certificates or occupational licenses (ASIS Foundation, N, d). All these are represented in the job postings.


ASIS Foundation. (N, d). Operational security industry competency model. University of Phoenix.

Department of Defense. (2016). Information Pack. APS Career. Government of Australia.

Genesis IT and T P/L. (2016). Senior VP, Head of Security Management Corporate Banking.

Gilbert, F. (1978). Human Competence. Engineering Worthy Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Jacob Group (Australia Pty Ltd). (2016). Security Specialist job.

JEA. (2016). Physical Security Specialist.

National Portrait Gallery. (2016). Compliance and Risk Management Advisor.

Savin-Baden, M., & Major, C. H. (2013). Qualitative research: the essential guide to theory and practice. Abingdon: Routledge.

Shippmann, et al., (2000). The practice of competency modelling: Personnel Psychology. Retrieved on May 26, 2015 from

White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review.

University of Phoenix. (2014). Competency models for enterprise security and cyber security. Phoenix: Apollo Education Group.

Homeland Security. (2012). Security specialist competencies: An Interagency Security Committee Guideline.

United States Office of Personnel Management. (2011). Competency model for cyber security. Washington D.C.

Sennewald, C. A. (2013). Effective security management. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Harr, J. S., & Hess, K. M. (2010). Seeking employment in criminal justice and related fields. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning