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Sapphire material


Topic: sapphire material


Sapphire is a gemstone variety of mineral corundum and aluminium oxide which occur in alluvial deposits in the earth’s crust. The deposits exist in countries such as Afghanistan, Australia, China, India, Kenya, Nigeria and Pakistan. It is a relatively hard material which makes it difficult to be applied to a wide range of products. It is shiny like glass and can occur in more than one colour. The other varieties of gemstones related to sapphire are rubies and padparadscha which are usually red and orange in colour.

Thesis: More exploration and study and resources should be invested in the sapphire material to maximise the benefits from the material and incorporate it in many varieties of products.

  1. Properties

  1. Colour, texture and solubility

  2. Gravity and formation

  3. Melting and boiling points point

  4. Hardness and solubility

  1. Growth methods

  1. Kyropoulos method

  2. Stepanov method

  1. Applications and uses

  1. Glass windows

  2. Electronics

  3. Armor applications

  4. Lamp glasses

  5. Making circuits

  6. As semiconductors

  1. Advantages

  1. Transparency

  2. Hardness

  3. Resistant to scratch

  4. Durability of products

  5. Resistant to thermal shock

  6. Durability

  7. Reflection and colour

  1. Disadvantages

  1. High cost of manufacture

  2. Environment issues through emissions

  3. High cost of its products


Sapphire material occurs in the earth and has properties which make it applicable to a wide range of has both positive and negative aspects associated with its process and products. However, more effort should be put towards the manufacture of sapphire material as it could lead to durable products improving the economy.


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Jagadish, C., & Pearton, S. J. (Eds.). (2011). Zinc oxide bulk, thin films and nanostructures: processing, properties, and applications. Elsevier.

Akselrod, M. S., & Bruni, F. J. (2012). Modern trends in crystal growth and new applications of sapphire. Journal of Crystal Growth, 360, 134-145.